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MGCR 331 midterm vocab.pdf

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McGill University
Management Core
MGCR 331
Sebastien Breau

Information Systems (MGCR 331) Study online 1. 5 - five waves of 1. first wave (1960s) computing limited to large mainframe computers (only governments & big corporations computing can afford) 2. Moore's Law kicked in (1970s) > minicomputers: refrigerator-sized & speedy /speedier than earlier mainframes BUT affordable smaller organizations 3. (1980s) > PCs: by the end of the decade nearly every white-collar worker in America had a fast and cheap computer 4. (1990s) > Internet computing: cheap servers & networks made it possible to scatter data around the world - with more power, personal computers displayed graphical interfaces become more easy to use (menus accessible by mouse click) - majority of the population in many developed countries had home PCs, as did most libraries and schools. 5. computers are so fast and so inexpensive that they have become ubiquitous (everywhere) - Ambient devices 2. 5 - grid computing place special software on its existing PCs or servers (multiple PCs/servers) that enables these computers to work together on a common problem - cheaper than one massive computer can be divided up to solve different aspects of the problem 3. 5 - massively parallel computers designed with many microprocessors that work together, simultaneously, to solve problems processing can be divided up to solve different aspects of the problem 4. 5 - microprocessor brain of a computing device. part of the computer that executes the instructions of a computer program, allowing it to run a Web browser, word processor, video game, or virus. twice as fast in eighteen months, but cost the same as today's models 5. 5 - Moore's Law chip performance per dollar doubles every eighteen months. strictly speaking m law doesn't apply to other tech components (but other computer components are also skyrocketing in terms of performance vs. price 6. 5 - multicore two or more lower power processor cores (think of a core as the calculating part of a microprocessor) on a microprocessors single chip to solve heating issue when you make processors smaller, the more tightly packed electrons will heat up a chip 7. 5 - Non volatile chip based memory retains data even with power off permanent memory storage ex: flash memory/ harddrive not as fast as the RAM used in most traditional PCs flash memory is chip equivalent of hardrive 8. 5 - optical fiber line amount of data that can be squirted over an optical fiber line can double every 9 month (approximation) 9. 5 - semiconductors substance such as silicon dioxide used inside most computer chips that is capable of enabling as well as inhibiting the flow of electricity AKA chips 10.5 - silicon wafer used to create semiconductors 11.5 - solid state no moving parts, less likely to fail and draw less power electronics example: chips advantage of solid state electronics = mobile (for mp3 and etc) 12.5 - Volatile memory - chip based - memory lost when power goes off if not saved in nonvolatile - temporary memory storage example: Random-access memory (RAM) - provides fast access for executing computer programs and files. When you "load" or "launch" a program, it usually moves from your hard drive to those RAM chips, where it can be more quickly executed by the processor. 13.9 - (common) commands for OS commands make a programmer's job easier: - reduce program complexity - faster to write software - minimize possibility of errors in code example: Wii developers had a common OS to work with --> easier to write games example: Apple for iPod etc. *effective design has very strategic business implications 14.9 - applications place where the users or organization's real work gets done operating systems control the hardware, application software (sometimes referred to as software applications, applications, or even just apps) perform the work that users and firms are directly interested in accomplishing 15.9 - capability maturity model process improvement approach: integration gauge an organization's process maturity and capability in areas critical to developing and deploying technology projects, and provides a carefully chosen set of best practices and guidelines to assist quality and process improvement 16.9 - categories of enterprise customer relationship management (CRM) systems used to support customer-related sales and software that managers are marketing activities (salesforce) likely to encounter include supply chain management (SCM) systems that can help a firm manage aspects of its value chain, from the flow of raw materials into the firm through delivery of finished products and services at the point-of-consumption business intelligence (BI) systems, which use data created by other systems to provide reporting
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