MIMM 466 - Lecture 1.docx

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McGill University
Microbiology and Immun (Sci)
MIMM 466

MIMM 466 Lecture 1 Evolving and Emerging viruses in a global perspectiveMindset 50 years ago We will eradicate all infectious diseases1948 US Secretary of State George Marshall World now has the means to eradicate infectious diseases from earth1963 Aidan Cockburn advisor at WHO in 100 years all major infections will have disappeared1969 US Surgeon General William Steward The time has come to close the book on infectious diseasesReality today No eradication except Smallpox in 1979Emergence ofEbola AIDS Plague Hendra Nipah viruses SARS Influenza Viral encephalitisIncreased Malaria Yellow Fever Dengue1996 Bill Clinton issued a fact sheet Addressing the Threat of Emerging Infectious Diseases1997 Set up of WHO theme which was Emerging Infectious Diseases Global Alert Global Response with the lesson that in a global village no nation is immune So even if the infectious disease starts in Africa we are all concerned In terms of human deaths what is the most dangerous animal in the worldMosquitoes 23 millions fatalities per year because it is a carrierCarrier of partial list Yellow fever Dengue fever Rift Valley Fever Arboviral encephalitides Japanese encephalitis EasternWestern Equine encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis St Louis encephalitis West Nile virusNatural weapons of mass destruction placed on a Richter Scale Viruses are among the topHIV Hepatitis Measles etc Virus evolution constant change of a viral population in the face of selective pressuresSources of diversity how can you have a new speciesMutationRecombination and reassortmentSelectionEmerging virus Causative agent of a new and previously unrecognized infection in a populationManifestation of virus evolutionResult of hostvirus interaction on a larger scaleViruses have coevolved with animals Even if today they are only found in humans at one point they were also in animals They have just evolved to not use the animal counterpartExamples of emerging reemerging virusesVirusFamilyEmergence factorsDengue virusFlaviviridaeDeforestation with increased contacts forestruralurban areas Urban population density open water storage favors mosquito breedingEbola virusFiloviridaeLikely bats to monkeys to humans in AfricaHaantan virusBunyaviridaeAgriculture techniques favor human contact with rodents Junin virusArenaviridaeAfrica Asia AmericasMachupo virusArenaviridaeInfluenza virusOrthomyxoviridIntegrated pigduck agriculture spread by mobile populationaeNorwalkgastroenteritisCaliciviridaeFecaloral route from contaminated water and food Absence Viruses not really of clean water Increased population density in areas with no emergent viruses but sanitationtheir spread is increasing in some parts of the worldHIV 1980sRetroviridaeChimpanzeeshuman contacts Africa Butchering chimp meatHumanhuman contacts sexual intravenous drug usersSARS 2003CoronaviridaeLikely bats to civet cats to humans China and to other humans through planesHendraNipah virusesParamyxoviridAustralia Malaysia From bats to horses or pigs to humans
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