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Solutions - MIMM 466 Final Examination, 2002.doc

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Microbiology and Immun (Sci)
MIMM 466

SolutionsMIMM 466 Final Examination 200211Burkitts Lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma aIt also causes a polyclonal B cell lymphocytic leukemia lymphoma22Shingles aAlso called zoster and is a local recurrence of latent infectionbPrimary infection is called varicella chickenpox31EBV aBasis of the EBV monotest where we mix the patients serum with horse RBCsbWe make antibodies that react against horse RBCs42EBV and CMV aPerson in their 20s infected for the first time by CMV can also get infectious mononucleosis52Viral phosphokinase thymidine kinase phosphorylates acyclovir more efficiently than does the host cell phosphokinaseaAcyclovir is a terrible substrate for initial phosphorylation by cellular kinases in the first positionbHowever herpes simplex type I and II both express a virally encoded thymidine kinase that is extremely active at phosphorylating the first position of acyclovircCellular kinases can then take over and phosphorylate positions 2 and 3 and essentially all DNA synthesis in infected cells gets turned off and only the HSVinfected cells die62Double stranded DNA envelopedaHerpes viruses are large dsDNA viruses with surrounding tegument and an envelope73HerpesvirusesaAll have the LAT latency associated transcript gene which is a spliced transcriptbDuring latency only this transcript is expressed from the DNA81HSV92EBVaSite of latency in lymphoid tissuesbCauses infectious mononucleosis101Elimination of latent virusaAcyclovir is ineffective against latent infection since only LAT and no thymidine kinase is expressed in neuronal cells that are latently infected111Chickenpox shinglesaVaricella chickenpox is a primary infection that is always disseminatedbThe virus then enters into latency in sensory neural ganglia and can reemerge decades later in the territory of a single sensory nerve ganglia causing zoster shingles125HHV6aIs a mild rash in newborn infantsstbThey are infected during the 1 month of life by the mothers saliva132A single latencyassociated transcript LATaDuring latency the genetic material of HSV1 in our bodies exists in episomal form in the nucleus of infected neural tissues and only a single transcript is expressed from that DNA the LAT144Resistance of apoptosisaWhen an expression plasmid introduced the LAT gene into primary human lung cells monkey kidney cells and murine neuroblastoma cells the cells were protected against several apoptosisinducersbThus it appears LAT prevents killing of the latentlyinfected neurons allowing them to live longer and maintain reactivation potential throughout the lifetime of the organism155Sensory neuronsaIn HSV1 latent infection and subsequent reactivation occurs in sensory neurons162Circular DNA enters the cell and linearizesaStructure of the HSV large dsDNA genome 125229 kbp in a circle in the central core of the virus175The nucleus 1819201Is a nucleoside analogaThe drug is a nucleoside analog because cells cannot take up nucleotidesbThey are then phosphorylated to nucleotides within the cell they are going to be used in
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