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MUAR 211 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Giacomo Puccini

Music-Arts Faculty
Course Code
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain
Study Guide

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MUAR 211 The Art of Listening Jerry Cain Winter 2013
Classical Period: 1750-1800+
Vienna, Austria associated with 3 of the most influential musicians of this period (Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven)
Esterhazy family: wealthiest & most powerful Hungarian royal family; patron of Haydn
patron: composer’s employer; supports composer with room, board, allowance or giving him good salary
anything that will allow him to compose music
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
o composed London String Quartets & London Symphonies
o choirmaster to the Esterhazy family
o considered largely responsible for codifying structure of string quartet
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
o played tours before European royalty when young
o knew & admired Haydn
o legendary for ability to quickly compose high quality & high complexity pieces
o known for symphonies & string quartets today, in his day known for piano & opera
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
o represents a bridge between Classicism & Romanticism transitional composer
o studied with Haydn
o keyboard virtuoso
o didn’t have single patron
o totally deaf by 1820 become more isolated & suicidal
invention of the piano c.1700: keyboard instruments that strikes strings with little hammers
o fortepiano: plays louder
o pianoforte: plays softer
symphony: multi-movement instrumental genre for orchestra alone; no featured soloist; usually has 4
string quartet: an instrumental group consisting of 2 violins, viola and cello
sonata: genre of chamber music for a multi-movement genre for an instrumental soloist with piano
accompaniment OR multi-movement genre for one piano alone
concerto: genre of large ensemble music in multiple movements for a featured instrumental soloist with an
double concerto: concerto with two featured soloists
piano quintet: piano and 4 strings
woodwind quintet: group of 5 woodwind instruments
orchestra: based around a core of bowed strings; played at least 4 separate parts
o generally larger than Baroque Orchestra
o no longer contained basso continuo sections
the classical orchesta
o bowed strings violin, viola, cello (violincello), double bass (contrabass)
o woodwinds flute, clarinet
o double-reed woodwind oboe, bassoon
o brass horn, trombone, trumpet, tuba
o percussion timpani
chamber music: music designed to be played in a small room of 2-9 people
tonality: system of major & minor keys that was the foundation of music theory & practice in the western world
from 1600-1900
key: collection of pitches organized around central pitch
major scale: group of 7 different pitches that features following interval pattern if arranged in ascending order,
starting on the tonic: C D E F G A B C
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MUAR 211 The Art of Listening Jerry Cain Winter 2013
minor scale: group of 7 different pitches that features following interval pattern if arranged in ascending order,
starting on the tonic: C D Eflat F G Aflat Bflat C
chromatic scale: every single possible pitch there are 12
chromaticism: a musical style employing all or many of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale much of the time
tonic pitch: the most important/central pitch of the piece
dominant pitch: the 5th note of a major/minor scale; second most important pitch
modulation: change of key within piece of music many classical works modulate to the key of the dominant &
return to the tonic
transposition: changing the key of a piece of music by simply moving the tonic either up or down by a specific
minuet: a popular 17th & 18th century dance in moderate triple meter OR a movement in a sonata, symphony,
etc. based on this dance
minuet & trio form: middle section for a trio
scherzo: a form developed by Beethoven from the minuet to use for movements in larger compositions
binary form: a musical form having 2 different sections (AB)
ternary form: a musical form having 3 different sections in which the last section repeats itself (ABA)
theme & variations form: a musical form consisting of a tune plus variations of it
sonata form: a form that is common in the first movements of instrumental genres creates a pleasing balance
& symmetry
o exposition: the first section of a sonata form movement
primary theme area: tonic key
secondary theme area: secondary key
o development: the second section of sonata form movement no stable key (modulatory)
o recapitulation: the third section of a sonata movement rounding of the binary form
coda: very last section of a music movement, occurring after overall formal scheme of movement is complete
sequence: short musical motive repeated over & over at different pitch levels
cadenza: section of music near end of concerto movement during which instrumental soloist plays completely
alone usually improvised
staccato: played in a detached manner
legato: playing in a smooth, connected manner
lyrical: relatively long, songlike melody
motive/motivic development: a short fragment of melody or rhythm used in constructing a long section of
theme/thematic development: technique where theme is developed by changing it through transposition or
opus: “work”; provide means of cataloguing a composer’s compositions
virtuoso: a person highly skilled with special interest/knowledge
Romantic Period: 1800-1900+
nationalism Chopin’s Revolutionary Etude
exoticism Mahler’s Das Lied von der Erde
program music Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique
absolute music Chopin’s waltz in D flat
chromatic harmony: the use of 2 successive chords which belong to tow different keys & therefore contain
tones represented by the same note symbols but with different accidentals
art song/Lied: genre of monody (song) composed for solo voice with piano accompaniment; musical setting of a
high quality poem
song cycle/Lied cycle: a group of songs connected by a general idea or story, sometimes also by musical unifying
devices not every collection of art songs is a cycle
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