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MUAR 211 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Trio Sonata, String Instrument, Absolute Pitch

Music-Arts Faculty
Course Code
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain
Study Guide

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Quiz 2:
Vienna- holy roman empire. City associated with 3 of the most influential musicians
Vienna, Austria- most important musical-cultural centers in Europe in 18th and 19th Cen. Politics are
gigantic for the history of music (driving musical establishment)
Esterhazy family- wealthiest and most powerful of the Hungarian royal families, owned the palace of
Esterhaza which contained an orchestra of 30 players in which Haydn was the musical director, 2 opera
theatres, academies (concerts) twice weekly, daily dinner music, sacred music for the princely worship
service (for the priest and connoisseurs who visited the palace)
Patron, Patronage, Patronage system- decline of patronage system in the classical era (royals and
aristocrats were in charge) , appearance of middle and working class, decline in wealth and power of the
aristocracy , influenced how and for whom music was being played
Kappelmeister- (reference to Haydn), musical director of Esterhaza palace
Haydn’s London concerts- hydn was celebrated in London for foreign music, last 12 symphonies were
written for London audience
Invention of the piano (1700)- instrument that strikes the key with little hammer, capable of playing
louder or softer, modern piano have metal soundboard, resonates as the string vibrates, more tiny and
clear sound than fortepiano, dominant keyboard instrument of the classical era,
Fortepiano (a.k.a Pianoforte) - earlier version of the piano, plucked instrument, contains much more
wood, piano of Mozart’s time
Bowed string of the classical orchestra- 1750 orchestras were around a core of bowed strings who
usually played at least 4 separate parts, larger than the baroque orchestra, SATB range but
Violin- 2, both violins had different parts
Cellos- string instrument played between the legs, modern cellos can play more than one note at a time
which implies harmonic regression, usually plays the base notes
Double Bass- not present in small ensembles because of balance (loud and resonates)
Woodwinds of classical orchestra- exotic woodwind instruments used in the 19th Cen. (not introduced
until then) contained MAX: 2 flutes, 2 clarinets (woodwind), 2 obeos, 2 bassoons (double-reed
Brass instruments of the classical orchestra- Max: 2 horns (1french horn and 1 trombone), 2 trumpets

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Percussion- Max: 2 timpani- tuned drum, pedal that adjusts the tension of the head of the drum to get
actual pitches (key of tonic or dominant), can be retuned during performance (takes skills)
Chamber music- large music rooms for performance space, homophonic music, string quartets is one of
the most popular type of chamber music of the 18th Cen.
Social, domestic music making- string quartets were intended for amateur performance (growing class
in classical era), Virtuoso concert pieces composed for both (foot melodies to sell to popular market)
Tonality (a.k.a. functional tonality)- system of major and minor keys and their related scales (2
different pitches in a scale), foundation of music theory and practice in western world from 1600-1900,
still serves as a basis for most of today’s music, hierarchical system that emphasizes certain pitches and
chords (simultaneous combination of pitches so that some sound more stable). Within a system, every
possible chord in any given key has a functional relationship to the other chords in that key.
Key- collection of pitches organized around a central pitch (different pitches from the same scale)
(tonic), hierarchical network of interval relationships in which certain pitches are emphasized more than
others (tonic) in order to create a sense of motion (towards or away from stability), gives melody its
shape, limits the number of pitches used in a piece of music from 12 to 7 with specific intervallic profile
Major Key- group of 7 different pitches that features the an interval pattern if arranged in ascending
order starting on tonic (1, 1, ½, 1, 1, 1, ½)
Minor Key- group of 7 different pitches that features the an interval pattern if arranged in ascending
order starting on tonic (1, ½, 1, 1, ½, 1, 1)
Scale- specific pattern of interval spanning one octave, includes all 12 possible pitches
Major/Minor scale- abstract arrangement of the 7 pitches of a major/minor key into ascending or
descending order
Chromatic scale- series of pitches moves exclusively by half steps thereby including all 12 pitches, note
no half-step between F-flat and E, (originally not all half steps were the same size /distance from each
Equal-temperament tuning- way that a piano or any instrument is tuned, standardization of practice
12 half step in an octave- 12 different pitches per octave
Tonic- most important pitch in any key, most stable and consonant, gives the name and its related scale,
central pitch, 1st pitch, can be in major or minor key
Dominant- 5th note of major or minor scale, pitch that’s a “perfect pitch”, aurally defines where the
tonic is
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