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Final

Art of Listening Exam Prep

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Department
Music-Arts Faculty
Course
MUAR 211
Professor
Jane Hatter
Semester
Winter

Description
Music (noun) - The art or science of combining vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion - The written or printed signe representing such sound The basic parameters of music: - Time: duration of the sound and silence (rhythm, rest fermenta, quarter note, etc). Also, tempo (fast or allegro, slow or grave, etc) - Pitch: frequency of sound, vibration of a string (described with terms of high and low). - Quality: the way music sounds, (dynamic like forte, piano, etc). timbre, harsh, sooft, myted, etc. texture (how many instruments are playing, are they playing together, are they playing the same piece, are they moving together or against each other?). {you don’t start having dynamic markings in scores until the baroque era} Rhythm vs. Meter - Meter: background/yardstick o Duple meter (ONE two/ONE two) o Triple meter (ONE two three/ONE two three)  Some pieces are better in triple than duple - Rhythm: foreground, the object being measured Medieval (800-1600) - Monophony: sacred and secular (religious music vs. common music) o Single sound - Followed the fall of Rome in 476 BC - Much education and technology was lost in the West - We have very little music left, but about 95% of it remaining is religious music o Monks wrote, thus they were the ones who knew how to keep music o They did it so that everyone would do the same thing, and they could pass it down to the next generation or in different towns o Music was a political tool used by the church to make sure everyone stayed in line o People rebelled against this, which helped new musical concepts evolve: notation, polyphony, tunes, etc. - Music in the Middle Ages o Plainchant (aka Gregorian chant)  Functional music for the liturgy  Sung by monks, nuns and priests o Vehicle for words o Political tool  Unification by Charlemagne  Levels of ornamentation for different occasions and parts of the service (more important ceremonies got better music)  Reciting tone (simple, you sing mostly on one tone) vs. melody (more complicated) - Pope Gregory ! o Standardized “Gregorian” chant o He was used as a symbol for “pure” chant {dove on his shoulder} by Charles the Great o Music and liturgy as a political tool - Introuit:Resurrexi o Syllabic text o Melisma: one word with many notes o They had a crude kind of notation with dots - Work & Pray o Modern nuns in Conneticut who continue to sing medieval songs o Reciting tone for a while, and then a more melodic tone - Similarities o Monophonic (single line of melody) o Performance context (in church), nonmetrical, follows the rhythm of the text, modal, repetitive form o This is associated with a lot of chant - Medieval modes o Dorian (D-based), Phrygian (E-based), Lydian (F-based, white keys), Mixolydian (G- based) o Not really as simplistic as it looks on the screen, but basically this - In paradisum (9 c) o Monophonic (a set of voices singing the same notes at the same time) and about death o Would have been performed when they’re bringing the body to the grave o Processional chant o Mixolydian o Antiphon o Male performers o Mostly syllabic, repeated o Just voices o Very important, still performed today - Columba aspexit (12 c) o Sequence (AA, BB, CC, etc) o Mixolydian o Written for a regional saint who is no longer venerated, so no one remembers him anymore, so the piece has fallen out of repertoire, but the composer (first composer for whom we have a large body of music, and she is a woman)  Hildegard von Bingen  Benedictine Abbess  Visionary  Writer  Composer  Probably not literate, certainly not musically literate  She couldn’t write her own music  Known for visions, her work as a diplomat  More fluid because she did things in her head o Sung by nuns and monks during a special service for this saint o Female performers o Melismatic, florid lines o Voice plus instrumental drone o There is a soloist and a choir, and they alternate - Genre o General category o Can be defined by the text, the function, etc - Music in secular society o Music performed for royalty  Jongleurs – wandering musicians  Rural tradition o Troubadour and trouvere songs  Composed and performed for and by nobles  First large body of secular songs written down  We have the poetry, but not a lot of melody o Bernard de Bentadorn (1135-1194)  Troubadour poet  Influenced many others  Humble background and then came to serve the queen French composers who learned the English style - Rather than lots of open octaves and fifths, you had lots more inverted chords in thirds and sixths o Fifth is one note, then the next played 5 above them. Third - Dufay and Binchois popularized this more English sound o Music less angular - Dufay, “Ave Maris Stella” o Harmonization of plainchant hymn  Hymns come from later in the middle ages. Associated with church, but not a particular time o Strophic form (almost all hymns are in strophic form) o Odd verses sung as chant o Even verses use paraphrase (top line is found in the top line of the composition) and homophonic setting.  Paraphrase calues the melodic character of chant unlike medieval organum  Gives it specific meter and rhythm  Embellishes it  Emphasizes sensuous aspect of chant o Would have been sung at one of her feasts - Mensural notation o Void notes (not blacked in) o No bar lines o Composed of longs, breaves and minims (instead of quarter/half/whole notes) o Each level can be divided into two or three depending on mensuration sign - High renaissance style o A cappella sound, just voices  Some instruments, but we don’t know how they were used o Still using mediecal modes o Medium register, smooth melodies o Mostly consonant chords (thirds, fifths) o Alternation between imitation and homophony o Metric, primarily duple, but without strong accents - Josquin Desprez (1455-1521) o Came from French speaking area of Northern Europe o Worked primarily in Italy and Rome  works preserved in many Roman manuscripts o One of the greatest composers of the Renaissance o Popular in his lifetime and after  remained in print for over 100 years! o Compositions express the text o Complex music that sound simple o Martin Luther’s favorite composer - Polyphonic Mass o You have to write one to be a serious composer o Set the 5 parts of the Mass ordinary in polyphony  Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus dei (these are a part of every mass, year round) o Used chant either:  as an inner voice (cantus firmus) or  paraphrased it in an upper voice o Main vehicle of virtuosity for Renaissance Composers, beginning with Dufay o Practice continued to be important throughout the Renaissance - Pange Lingua hymn o Hymn for Corpus Christi (the body of Christ) o Ave maris stella also a hymn  Motive paraphrases chant hymn’s first phrase - Kyrie: Imitative Polyphony o 4 voices o Each voice paraphrases a line from hymn o New imitation= new phrase o Doesn’t use hymn’s words - Pange lingua Mass, Kyrie o Three different sections, all are imitative  Kyrie  triple meter  begins with motto from hymn in 4 voice imitation  Christe  duple meter  begins with bass-alto duet  Kyrie  triple again  begins with soprano-alto duet - High renaissance alternates between homophony and polyphony - Late Renaissance Style o Rooted in high renaissance style o Most sacred music is conservative, this this root is most evident there o Universal, international style o Circulated in print - Counter-reformation o The catholic church’s answer to the reformation o They considered banning all complex, polyphonic music at the Council of Trent o Palestrina became a symbol of the musical response to criticism  He was trying to align himself with the church  One of these ideas was using texts - High vs. late renaissance o Palestrina vs. Josquin  6 voices (more varied groupings) vs. 4 voices  More homophonic (possibly in response to Council of Trent)  Clearer declamation of the words  Richer sonorities  Palestrina’s Mass is a conservative work  Palestrina is more likely to repeat words - Assignment due 13 feb. Baroque Chorus - Similar to renaissance choral music o Alternating polyphony and homophony - Shepherds hiding in the field o Secco (dry = continuo only) and accompanied ( = orchestra as well) recitative
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