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Midterm 2 Notes

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McGill University
Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

MUAR 211 – The Art of Listening – Jerry Cain Winter 2013 Classical Period: 1750-1800+  Vienna, Austria associated with 3 of the most influential musicians of this period (Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven)  Esterhazy family: wealthiest & most powerful Hungarian royal family; patron of Haydn  patron: composer’s employer; supports composer with room, board, allowance or giving him good salary  anything that will allow him to compose music  Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) o composed London String Quartets & London Symphonies o choirmaster to the Esterhazy family o considered largely responsible for codifying structure of string quartet  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) o played tours before European royalty when young o knew & admired Haydn o legendary for ability to quickly compose high quality & high complexity pieces o known for symphonies & string quartets today, in his day known for piano & opera  Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) o represents a bridge between Classicism & Romanticism  transitional composer o studied with Haydn o keyboard virtuoso o didn’t have single patron o totally deaf by 1820  become more isolated & suicidal  invention of the piano c.1700: keyboard instruments that strikes strings with little hammers o fortepiano: plays louder o pianoforte: plays softer  symphony: multi-movement instrumental genre for orchestra alone; no featured soloist; usually has 4 movements  string quartet: an instrumental group consisting of 2 violins, viola and cello  sonata: genre of chamber music for a multi-movement genre for an instrumental soloist with piano accompaniment OR multi-movement genre for one piano alone  concerto: genre of large ensemble music in multiple movements for a featured instrumental soloist with an orchestra  double concerto: concerto with two featured soloists  piano quintet: piano and 4 strings  woodwind quintet: group of 5 woodwind instruments  orchestra: based around a core of bowed strings; played at least 4 separate parts o generally larger than Baroque Orchestra o no longer contained basso continuo sections  the classical orchesta o bowed strings  violin, viola, cello (violincello), double bass (contrabass) o woodwinds  flute, clarinet o double-reed woodwind  oboe, bassoon o brass  horn, trombone, trumpet, tuba o percussion  timpani  chamber music: music designed to be played in a small room of 2-9 people  tonality: system of major & minor keys that was the foundation of music theory & practice in the western world from 1600-1900  key: collection of pitches organized around central pitch  major scale: group of 7 different pitches that features following interval pattern if arranged in ascending order, starting on the tonic: C D E F G A B C MUAR 211 – The Art of Listening – Jerry Cain Winter 2013  minor scale: group of 7 different pitches that features following interval pattern if arranged in ascending order, starting on the tonic: C Dflat G Aflatflat  chromatic scale: every single possible pitch  there are 12  chromaticism: a musical style employing all or many of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale much of the time  tonic pitch: the mostthmportant/central pitch of the piece  dominant pitch: the 5 note of a major/minor scale; second most important pitch  modulation: change of key within piece of music  many classical works modulate to the key of the dominant & return to the tonic  transposition: changing the key of a piece of music by simply moving the tonic either up or down by a specific interval  minuet: a popular 17 & 18 century dance in moderate triple meter OR a movement in a sonata, symphony, etc. based on this dance  minuet & trio form: middle section for a trio  scherzo: a form developed by Beethoven from the minuet to use for movements in larger compositions  binary form: a musical form having 2 different sections (AB)  ternary form: a musical form having 3 different sections in which the last section repeats itself (ABA)  theme & variations form: a musical form consisting of a tune plus variations of it  sonata form: a form that is common in the first movements of instrumental genres  creates a pleasing balance & symmetry o exposition: the first section of a sonata form movement  primary theme area: tonic key  secondary theme area: secondary key o development: the second section of sonata form movement  no stable key (modulatory) o recapitulation: the third section of a sonata movement  rounding of the binary form  coda: very last section of a music movement, occurring after overall formal scheme of movement is complete  sequence: short musical motive repeated over & over at different pitch levels  cadenza: section of music near end of concerto movement during which instrumental soloist plays completely alone  usually improvised  staccato: played in a detached manner  legato: playing in a smooth, connected manner  lyrical: relatively long, songlike melody  motive/motivic development: a short fragment of melody or rhythm used in constructing a long section of music  theme/thematic development: technique where theme is developed by changing it through transposition or modulation  opus: “work”; provide means of cataloguing a composer’s compositions  virtuoso: a person highly skilled with special interest/knowledge Romantic Period: 1800-1900+  nationalism  Chopin’s Revolutionary Etude  exoticism  Mahler’s Das Lied von der Erde  program music  Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique  absolute music  Chopin’s waltz in D flat  chromatic harmony: the use of 2 successive chords which belong to tow different keys & therefore contain tones represented by the same note symbols but with different accidentals  art song/Lied: genre of monody (song) composed for solo voice with piano accompaniment; musical setting of a high quality poem  song cycle/Lied cycle: a group of songs connected by a general idea or story, sometimes also by musical unifying devices  not every collection of art songs is a cycle MUAR 211 – The Art of Listening – Jerry Cain Winter 2013  the cyclic principle: a multi-movement work is a cycle when it has shared musical characteristics & shared extra- musical characteristics o share musical  related pattern of keys between songs; reappearance of musical motives in more than 1 song in the cycle o shared extra-musical  poems by same poet published together; poems related in subject matter; poems that represent unified perspective  strophic form: each poetic verse/stanza is set to the same, repeating music  modified strophic form: some of the poem’s ver
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