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MUAR 211 Midterm I Prep.docx

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Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

MUAR 211 Midterm I Prep Midterm 1 Listening Guide Columba aspexit – Hildegard of Bingen Texture: monophonic throughout Genre: plainchant Language: Latin Performance: responsorially Form: AA’BB’ Dame, de qui toute ma joie vient – Guillaume de Machaut Texture: non-imitative polyphony Genre: chanson Language: vernacular language (French) Ave Maris Stella – Guillaume Dufay Texture: homophonic Genre: hymn Language: Latin Kyrie from Pange Lingua Mass – Josquin des Prez Texture: imitative polyphony Genre: Kyrie from a late Renaissance Mass Language: ancient, sacred Greek prayer Dido and Aeneas – Purcell Texture: imitative polyphony + homophony + word painting (homophonic) Genre: opera Language: English Violin Concerto in G+ 1 movement – Vivaldi Texture: homophonic Genre: solo concerto Form: ritornello form * basso continuo Violin Concerto in G+ 2nd movement – Vivaldi Texture: homophonic Genre: solo concerto Form: theme and variations * basso ostinato + melody Brandenburg Concerto– J.S Bach Texture: homophonic Genre: concerto grosso Form: ritornello form Well-Tempered Fugue No. 1 – J.S Bach Texture: imitative polyphony Genre: fugue Cantata No.4 – JS. Bach Genre: cantata 4th Texture: homophonic SubGenre: aria 5th Texture: imitative polyphony SubGenre: SATB quartet with continuo 8th Texture: homophonic subGenre: chorale Julius Caesar – Handel Genre: opera General Terminology and Concepts Genre: specific category of music defined by its traits/ categories Ensemble: instruments, vocals A Cappella: music with no instrumentation Pitch: a sound producing vibration that oscillates at a specific rate Interval: the distance of frequency between two pitches, either upward or downward (measured by half-steps) Octave: natural phenomenon of sound Equal-temperament tuning: man-made division of an octave into 12 half-steps Pitch names: A B C D E F G Accidentals: - sharp: raise by an interval - flat: lower by an interval - natural: cancels flat or sharp Ranges of Human Voices: Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass Text Setting: practice of setting words to music - syllabic: one syllable to one pitch - melismatic: one syllable to numerous pitches Monophony: one line music for voices Polyphony: simultaneous combination of 2 or more melodies - imitative: use the same motives ( fragments of melody ) - non-imitative: four voices with four independent melodies that never repeat the music of another voice part Homophony: a musical texture that involves any one melody of real interest with chords or other sounds - melody + accompaniment Homorhythm: all parts move together rhythmically Medieval Period ( 450-1450) Sacred culture: anything intended for worship Secular culture: everything excluding sacred Liturgy: systems of prayers and worships of specific religion (services for special occasions) Plainchant: a genre of music that was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church - latin/sacred (function): MASS / DIVINE OFFICE - nonmetrical: rhythm is free, no set beat/meter - usually monophonic - usually performed a cappella nonmetrical: “free” rhythm, no meter, no beat Divine Office: private worship observed by community in a monastery Mass: public worship - Kyrie eleison - Gloria in excelsis - Credo - Sanctus - Agnus Dei - Proper Mass: texts that change according to day - Ordinary Mass: texts that are same because sung everyday Performing Chant - direct performance - responsorial singing: solo leader performs verse and the entire congregation answer each verse with following verse or with response - antiphonal singing: divided into two groups that take turn singing phrases of text mode: a limited collection of pitches that are organized to emphasize one particular pitch Hildegard of Bingen: saint, visionary, composer, wrote many works of renaissance science, wrote lots of poetry, powerful woman, musical style has expansive range, wide leaps, florid melismas Drone: single two note chord running continuously 12 century: - Hildegard - Early manuscript for secular - Early manuscript for instrumental - Early manuscript for polyphonic Organum: an original plainchant melody + another melody (sung simultaneously to same words) Courtier: men and women for entertainment in royal courts Troubadour: secular poet/composers Jongaleur: popular musicians Notre Deam School ( 12-14 century) - composers working near Notre Dame cathedral - Leonin and Perotin Ars antiqua (late 12-13 century): organums - polyphonic - church modes, a capella - cantus firmus Cantus firmus: a pre-existing chant melody that will be used for new music creation - poluphonic cantus firmus= piece where one melody is borrowed - mere stylistic and enhancement Guillaume de Machaut: - courtier - widely known for Ars Nova style - composed early extant complete Mass Ordinary Chanson: French secular song Notre Dame Mass: first complete extant manuscript for Ordinary Mass Ars Nova: (late 14 century) - isorhythm - non-imitative polyphony Renaissance Era (1460-1600) Invention of printing press: 1450 Lutheran Reformation: separation of Christian from Roman Catholic Church Counter-Reformation: ref
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