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MUAR 211 final exam.docx

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McGill University
Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

MUAR 211 final Impressionism: style term - French - Non-realistic - Pleasant topics - Light colours - Indistinct objects  Symbolist poetry: genre o Pleasant, static topics o Sound is more important than meaning o Suggestive of images, settings, ideas and moods Claude Debussy (1862-1910) - French - 3 innovations: harmonic language, use of ensembles, creative form - Influenced by Wagner - Chromatic music, not analyzed in major/minor scale - Used ‘planing”, no tonality but cohesive  Pentatonic scale: exotic  Whole-tone scale: no half steps, no sense of tonic, static  Pedal tone/pedal point: long held notes Avant Garde: questions fundamental assumptions WW1: 1914-1918 WW2: 1939-1945 th Modernism: art in the early 20 century Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) - Born in Russia, but famous in Paris - Wrote 3 ballets for Ballet Russe: Firebird, Petrushka, Le sacre du printemps  The Rite of Spring: performed in 1913 in Paris, choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky, primitivism, folk melodies and percussive, example of exoticism Primitivism: type of exoticism - Depicts exotic artworks in a condescending manner - Rough technique Polytonal: simultaneous juxtaposition of 2+ key areas in different parts of the orchestra Dissonant: sounds unstable Consonant: sounds stable Commission: when a patron pays you to make a specific work Neoclassicism: reaction against romanticism and impressionism - Imitated some aspects of 18 century music - Reaction to WW1 and decimated European culture and nationalism - Absolute music Sprechtsimme: “speech voice” - Declamatory - Melody reflects what the poem is saying Expressionism: style - Stress intense emotions - Bright clashing colors with darkness - Distorts shapes to cerate unease Arnold Schoenberg (1974-1951): modernist - Born in Germany, moved to US - Viennese School of Music master - Criticized for intellectualizing music  Atonal music: no tonic o Emancipation of dissonance o Use all 12 pitches of the equally tempered octave at any time Second Viennese School - Schoenberg - Anton Webern - Alban Berg o Wozzeck and Lulu (atonal opera) 12 tone music/serial music (Schoenberg) - How to create coherent music with out key areas - Rules: o The 12 notes have to be used in a particular order, chosen by the composer o Once used, can’t use the pitch again until you’ve used the other 11 - Each piece can be changed in 3 ways: retrograde, inversion and retrograde inversion - Can still have binary and ternary form Bela Bartok (1881-1945) - Hungarian, moved to US - Wrote Romanian/Slovak and Hungarian folksongs - Harmonically/rhythmically innovative - Used dissonance, atonality and ancient church modes - Pieces have tonal centers that are not classical tonality - Used all instruments percussively:  Glissando: sliding between pitches  Pizzicato: plucking of string instruments Ethnomusicology: study of non-Western music Nationalism: protecting culture from outside influences Musical symmetry  Palindrome: structure of symmetric music  Arch form: ABCBA Pierre Boulez (b. 1925) - French - Darmstadt teacher  Integral serialism/ total serialism: which is expanded serial procedures beyond pitch to control all musical parameters, not just pitch - Used pointillism (texture) Vocalise: voice alone, singing random notes with out meaning Quotation music: quoting music from another piece Electroacoustic music - Art music - Puts electric sound into music, following the advent of technology Musique concrete (1948) - France - Pierre Schaeffer: produced short tape studies based on transformations of natural sounds - Ex: “etude au chemin de fer”: tracks spliced together of trains on railtracks Classic manipulations of tape sounds - Editing out - Varying playback speed - Playing the sound backwards (tape reversal) - Combining different sounds (overdubbing) Electronic music: artificial sound, altered electronically Additive synthesis: music is created by combining sine waves made by sine wave generators (creates pure pitches with no overtones) Subtractive synthesis: components of a complex sounds (usually electronically generated white noise, which contains the entire audible spectrum of frequencies) are filtered out to produce new timbres White noise generator: generates sound waves with the entire audible spectrum of frequencies P
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