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Muar 211-Quiz 2.docx

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Department
Music-Arts Faculty
Course
MUAR 211
Professor
Jerry M.Cain
Semester
Winter

Description
Quiz 2: Vienna- holy roman empire. City associated with 3 of the most influential musicians th th Vienna, Austria- most important musical-cultural centers in Europe in 18 and 19 Cen. Politics are gigantic for the history of music (driving musical establishment) Esterhazy family- wealthiest and most powerful of the Hungarian royal families, owned the palace of Esterhaza which contained an orchestra of 30 players in which Haydn was the musical director, 2 opera theatres, academies (concerts) twice weekly, daily dinner music, sacred music for the princely worship service (for the priest and connoisseurs who visited the palace) Patron, Patronage, Patronage system- decline of patronage system in the classical era (royals and aristocrats were in charge) , appearance of middle and working class, decline in wealth and power of the aristocracy , influenced how and for whom music was being played Kappelmeister- (reference to Haydn), musical director of Esterhaza palace Haydn’s London concerts- hydn was celebrated in London for foreign music, last 12 symphonies were written for London audience Invention of the piano (1700)- instrument that strikes the key with little hammer, capable of playing louder or softer, modern piano have metal soundboard, resonates as the string vibrates, more tiny and clear sound than fortepiano, dominant keyboard instrument of the classical era, Fortepiano (a.k.a Pianoforte) - earlier version of the piano, plucked instrument, contains much more wood, piano of Mozart’s time Bowed string of the classical orchestra- 1750 orchestras were around a core of bowed strings who usually played at least 4 separate parts, larger than the baroque orchestra, SATB range but instrumentally Violin- 2, both violins had different parts Violas- Cellos- string instrument played between the legs, modern cellos can play more than one note at a time which implies harmonic regression, usually plays the base notes Double Bass- not present in small ensembles because of balance (loud and resonates) th Woodwinds of classical orchestra- exotic woodwind instruments used in the 19 Cen. (not introduced until then) contained MAX: 2 flutes, 2 clarinets (woodwind), 2 obeos, 2 bassoons (double-reed woodwind) Brass instruments of the classical orchestra- Max: 2 horns (1french horn and 1 trombone), 2 trumpets Percussion- Max: 2 timpani- tuned drum, pedal that adjusts the tension of the head of the drum to get actual pitches (key of tonic or dominant), can be retuned during performance (takes skills) Chamber music- large music rooms for performance space, homophonic music, string quartets is one of the most popular type of chamber music of the 18 Cen. th Social, domestic music making- string quartets were intended for amateur performance (growing class in classical era), Virtuoso concert pieces composed for both (foot melodies to sell to popular market) Tonality (a.k.a. functional tonality)- system of major and minor keys and their related scales (2 different pitches in a scale), foundation of music theory and practice in western world from 1600-1900, still serves as a basis for most of today’s music, hierarchical system that emphasizes certain pitches and chords (simultaneous combination of pitches so that some sound more stable). Within a system, every possible chord in any given key has a functional relationship to the other chords in that key. Key- collection of pitches organized around a central pitch (different pitches from the same scale) (tonic), hierarchical network of interval relationships in which certain pitches are emphasized more than others (tonic) in order to create a sense of motion (towards or away from stability), gives melody its shape, limits the number of pitches used in a piece of music from 12 to 7 with specific intervallic profile Major Key- group of 7 different pitches that features the an interval pattern if arranged in ascending order starting on tonic (1, 1, ½, 1, 1, 1, ½) Minor Key- group of 7 different pitches that features the an interval pattern if arranged in ascending order starting on tonic (1, ½, 1, 1, ½, 1, 1) Scale- specific pattern of interval spanning one octave, includes all 12 possible pitches Major/Minor scale- abstract arrangement of the 7 pitches of a major/minor key into ascending or descending order Chromatic scale- series of pitches moves exclusively by half steps thereby including all 12 pitches, note no half-step between F-flat and E, (originally not all half steps were the same size /distance from each other) Equal-temperament tuning- way that a piano or any instrument is tuned, standardization of practice 12 half step in an octave- 12 different pitches per octave Tonic- most important pitch in any key, most stable and consonant, gives the name and its related scale, central pitch, 1 pitch, can be in major or minor key th Dominant- 5 note of major or minor scale, pitch that’s a “perfect pitch”, aurally defines where the tonic is Modulation- change of key within a piece of music, when a piece of music begins in one key and then changes (complete transition) into another key, many classical work modulate to the key of dominant then returns to tonic key Transposition- changing key of a piece of music by moving the tonic (and all of the other pitches as well) either up or down by a specific interval, should sound the same but just higher or lower, makes a difference when accompanying a vocalist (if they can’t reach the higher notes), (e.g. C major to C sharp major= increase every note by a ½ step) Consonant/Dissonant- known as chromaticism, if a piece uses all 12 pitches it’s hard to have a moment that sounds dissonant or that resolves Dissonant- not used to hearing this, harsh sound Consonant- correspondence of sound, harmony of sound, accord or agreement Staccato- shortened and detached when played or sung, characterized by performance in which the notes are abruptly disconnected Legato- smooth and connected; without breaks between the successive tones Trill- type of ornament, rapid oscillation between 2 pitches that are very close to one another (step or half step apart), occurs right before a cadence, serves to build tension towards that cadence, occurs at very end of cadenza just before the orchestra comes back in Lyrical- having the form and musical quality of a song, and especially the character of a songlike outpouring of the poet's own thoughts and feelings, as distinguished from epic and dramatic poetry, usually the melody of a song, musical sounds in agreeable succession or arrangement, third movement is often lyrical (or second if inverted) Conjunt- progressing melodically by intervals of a second Disjunct- progressing melodically by intervals larger than a second Minuet- dance related second movement, triple metered, triple pulse (triple theme happening), Scherzo- replacement of minuet, passage of light or playful character, especially as the second or third movement of a sonata or a symphony Binary form- 2part form, has a very simple basic harmonic structure, begins in tonic key then modulates away from tonic and then returns to the tonic ley at the end of the work Ternary form- a musical form in three sections, with the third usually an exact repetition of the first rd Minuet/trio/scherzo form- characteristic of typical 3 movement of a 4 movement symphony, dance form, can be played in either tonic or contrasting key (different from 1 or 2 movement), moderato, brief and light, trio section for smaller subset of instruments th Rondo form- typical of 4 movement, played in tonic key, presto or allegro, light lively and happy, ritornello form, repeats fragments of melodies we’ve already heard with variation on keys, large scale structure of a piece (small scales form happening within the piece)
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