Art of listening study sheet.docx

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McGill University
Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jane Hatter

Composers Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) - Plainchant composer - One of the first and only women composers to be remembered from the middle ages - Benedictine abbess, visionary (her visions were recorded in Scrivas), writer, composer, medical personnel, diplomat consulted by kings and popes Bernart de Ventadorn (c.1135-1194) - Finest troubadour poets, very imitated, very important musically - Grew from a humble background to serve the queen Protin (c. 1200) Protin was famous for organa in 3 and 4 voices Monk and musician Anon. 4 wrote that he was the greatest composer of organum Contributed to the Magnus liber organi Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) a priest who served the courts of France and Luxembourg greatest composer and French poet of his day wrote monophonic in troubadour tradition created the polyphonic chanson described himself as short, blind in one eye, gout sufferer, and lover of nature, horseback riding, and falconry Supervised the copying of an edition of his complete works As important as a poet as he was as a composer Courtly love - had a much younger girlfriend (long distance relationship) Guillaume DuFay (c. 1400-1474) - Born in France near Belgium - Worked in Italy Josquin Desprez (c.1455-1521) Came from French speaking area of Northern Europe Worked primarily in Italy and Rome works preserved in many Roman manuscripts One of the greatest composers of the Renaissance Popular in his lifetime and after remained in print for over 100 years! Compositions express the text Complex music that sound simple Martin Luthers favorite composer Josquin is master of the notes which must express what he desires; on the other hand, other choral composers must do what the notes dictate.God has His Gospel preached also through the medium of music; this may be seen from the compositions of Josquin, all of whose works are cheerful, gentle, mild and lovely; they flow and move along and are neither forced nor coerced and bound by rigid and stringent rules, but, on the contrary, are like the song of the finch. Martin Luther Sacred works Masses Ritual works Motets Secular works Chanson Palestrina - Singer and choirmaster in many famous churches - Lived during the counter-reformation movement (Catholic churchs answer to Protestant reformation; very oppressive) Thomas Weelkes (c. 1575-1623) - Heavy drinker, had trouble keeping a job - Wrote light madrigals - One of the best English composers of madrigals Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) - Radical - Madrigalist and Opera composer - bridges the gap between Renaissance and Baroque - leading figure in music c. 1600 - the last great madrigalist and the first great opera composer - Employed: - Mantua court (15891612) - Orfeo, operas first masterpiece - St. Marks, Venice (16121643) - The Coronation of Poppea Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Leading organ virtuoso Famous performer, composer, and teacher Worked in Florence and Rome Known for expressiveness and extravagance Henry Purcell (1659-1695) - Greatest English composer of the Baroque era - Sacred, instrumental and theater music - member of Chapel Royal and organist at Westminster Abbey - influenced by French and Italian music - wrote the first real English opera, Dido and Aeneas - written for a girls boarding school Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Red Priest, famous as virtuoso violinist, composer, and teacher wrote over 400 concertos for different solo instruments renowned for the quality of his teaching famous for student concerts taught at an orphanage for girls church musician but also led an opera house centered in Venice toured throughout Europe he was both praised and criticized for his virtuosity Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) From family of musicians Began his career as a church organist Then worked as a court composer Jailed while trying to change jobs 1723Cantor and Director musices, Leipzig Prolific, wrote in almost every genre Concerto Cantata Organ music, fugues Keyboard music, dance suites Passions and Oratorio Liked to write comprehensive collections Also prolific in his family life 4 of his sons became famous composers of the next generation George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) born in Halle, near Liepzig began career in Hamburg opera orchestra success in Italy, 1706 court musician for elector of Hanover (later King George I) pursued career in London opera impresario later turned to oratorio Genre Plainchant Functional music for the liturgy Official music of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages Sung by monks, nuns and priests Sung in a reciting tone Monophonic One set of pitches Unison or octave Can be performed by one singer or a choir but it is still monophonic if they are all singing the same thing Performance context, performed in church Nonmetrical Follows the rhythm of text Modal (medieval modes) Repetitive form Sequence - More elaborate form of plainchant than the antiphon - Consists of a series of short tunes sung twice, with some variation Troubadour song Monophonic Performance context, performed in church Nonmetrical Follows the rhythm of text Modal Repetitive form composed and performed for and by nobles first large body of secular songs written down we have more poetry than melodies concerned with chivalric love and heroes probably accompanied by jongleurs Round or canon Harmony out of a single melodic line Organum - earliest type of polyphony - traditional plainchant melody where another melody has been added with the same words - earlier ones were just two people singing at the same time at different pitches, but eventually that changed and then melismas were added - two counterpoints is possible, though this is much more complicated. To simplify this, definite rhythms replaced the free rhythms - non-imitative polyphony - Harmony - vertical axis of music - Required better notation system in order to control dissonance and consonance - Moved outside the church - Cultivated in elite musical circles - New use for preexistent music - Long notes values in the tenor, support and structure - Forced new developments in musical notation Motet - in latin, on sacred text - different from a mass - usually sung without accompaniment - homophony and imitative polyphony Polyphonic chanson (song) - traditional love songs/chivalry adapted to ars nova polyphony - nothing like gregorian chant Harmonized hymn - homophonic setting of a plainchant hymn - Performance context, performed in church - Nonmetrical - Follows the rhythm of text - Modal (medieval modes)
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