MUAR 392 Mid Term Study Notes.doc

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McGill University
Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 392
Dana Gorzelany- Mostak

LEGEND: Terms Genre: kind, sort, or a style Chapters Tracks -- -- -- WEEK ONE Tin Pan Alley - 1890s - many styles emerged from increasing immigrants in New York - typical form: Intro, Vamp, 2 Verses, Chorus (AABA) polyrhythm: complex division of beats (one hand playing duple meter, the other in triple meter) #16 - Billie Holiday, They Can’t Take That Away From Me - 1937, pop (jazz) or Tin Pan Alley X24 - Fred Astaire, They Can’t Take That Away From Me composer: George Gershwin genre: Tin Pan Alley or pop - (1937) Beat: the regular pulse underlying most music. By convention, in most popular music the beat is notated as a quarter note. Rhythm: 1. the way music moves in time / duration of notes in time. 2. specific duration of musical sounds meter: organization of beats into measures. most common: 4/4 meter Duple Meter: 2/4 time Triple Meter: 3/4 time Quadruple Meter (common time): 4/4 time syncopation: upsetting of the normal pattern of accents: accents are shifted to weak beats. (normal pattern: accents fall on the first beat of the measure or initial subdivision of the beat) 3 types: backbeat: syncopation of meter. e.g. accent 2 and 4 in a 4/4 meter. displacement: when a note comes one subdivision before the expected beat polyrhythm: accents form a separate beat on top of the meter. effect: 2 meters heard simultaneously. e.g. accents grouped by 3 on top of a 4/4 meter. tempo: speed of beats (beats per minute) Big Band Swing Music ch. 1: Irving Berlin in Tin Pan Alley (intro only) ch. 3: Big Band Swing Music Race & Power in the Music Business - 1920s jazz never found popular audience - 1930s: pop & “real jazz” merged - Swing Era / Big Band Era: mid 30s-early 40s large ensembles playing Swing (type of jazz) - in this era, music initially made by African Americans was popularized by white band leaders “Black Music’s On Top; White Jazz Stagnant” by Marvin Freedman - for Downbeat magazine. audience: jazz connoisseurs - evaluates difference between black and white musicians, although doesn’t argue the basis for the difference (biological/cultural) - “essentialist” stereotyping (suggests that black music is genetically transmitted) - explicitly shows how white writers admired black musicians “The Dance Band Business: A Study in Black and White” by Irving Kolodin - written for “Harper,” a general interest magazine - discusses different treatment of black and whtie musicians (doesn’t theorize about why they sound different) - black/white work circumstances. blacks didn’t have access to certain venues, whites made more money. this influenced public access to music. ch. 4: Solo Pop Singer and New Forms of Fandom from “Call Me Lucky” by Bing Crosby (as told to Pete Martin) “The Bobby Sox Have Wilted, but the Memory Remains Fresh” by Martha Weinman Lear ch. 5: Hillbilly and Race Music “That’s Gold in Them Hillbillies” by Kyle Crichton Hillbilly & Race Music - in order to pinpoint more niche audiences (black & rural southern), music industries coined “hillbilly” and “race” music. - originated outside NYs circuit - Hillbilly: itinerant musicians, informal performance settings, unotated music, lyrics about poverty & love loss hillbilly: rural, white southerner race: African American artists - both were marginalized genres #17 - Duke Ellington - Take the ‘A’ Train - Ellington blurred line between white/black music. - 1941, pop (jazz) or Race Music #14 - Don Azpiazu - El Manisero - “ethnic” music - (“Peanut Vendor”), 1930, pop (Latin) #7 - Larry Hensely - Matchbox Blues - 1934 - country/hillbilly blues -- -- -- -- WEEK TWO [A] #1 - Blind Lemon Jefferson - “Matchbox Blues” - 1927, country blues Blues lyrics: love lost, hard times, poverty, confessions #2 - Bessie Smith - “Backwater Blues”; 1927, classic blues - belt voice #3 - Robert Johnson - “Crossroad Blues”; 1938, country blues #5 - Louis Jordan - “Choo Choo Ch’Boogie”; 1946, R&B - shuffle rhythm - walking bass line -dance-a-ble - based on blues scale - jump blues - unabashedly commercial, theatrical - influenced by Vaudeville - neon lights, dancing girls, big curtain - dismissed in jazz history as being “commercial” and not artistic (false binary) #8 - Bob Wills, “Steel Guitar Rag” (1936), Western swing - intended for dancing - backbeat #9 - Hank Williams, “Move It on Over” (1947), country - huge country artist in 40s & 50s. popular artists covered his songs (e.g. Sinatra) R&B - emerges in the 1940s - combines jazz and blues - one of its founders: Louis Jordan (originated “jump blues”) Jump Blues - entertaining, vaudeville. lyrics: fun & frivolity (not lamenting) Country - commercial form emerges in the 20s (“hillbilly”) - 1940s - crossover hits on popular charts - 1949 - called country & western - influences: hillbilly, folk, fiddling tradition - accessible - lyrics: everyday situation - authentic, relatable - extension of audience member’s life - Grand Ole Pry - concert in Nashville - nashville - center for country music - country approached the mainstream with covers, crossovers, radio, traveling artists Classic Blues - female singers (first began professional music careers) - began in Vaudeville - belt, broadway, trained style - notated - singable Country Blues - itinerant male singers - untrained/raw - influenced by western african music. - solo guitar with picking, strumming, note bending. ch. 6: Blues People and the Classic Blues from “Blues People: The Negro Experience in White America and the Music that Developed From It” by Leroi Jones ch. 8: At the Crossroads with Robert Johnson, as Told by Johnny Shines “Interview with Johnny Shines” by Pete Welding ch. 9: From Race Music to Rhythm and Blues T-Bone Walker (intro only) ch. 10: Jumpin’ the Blues with Louis Jordan “Bands Dug by the Beat: Louis Jordan” from Downbeat Magazine from “Honkers and Shouters: The Golden Years of Rhythm and Blues” by Arnold Shaw ch. 13: Country Music as Folk Music, Country Music as Novelty “American Folk Tunes: Cowboy and Hillbilly Tunes and Tunesters” Billboard Magazine “Corn of Plenty” Newsweek Magazine ch. 14: Country Music Approaches the Mainstream “Country Music Goes to Town” by Rufus Jarman ch. 15: Hank Williams on Songwriting from “How to Write Folk and Western Music to Sell” by Hank Williams [B] R&B: 3 Strands - chicago blues, urban blues (BB King) - carefully formed R&B (Ruth Brown) - rooted in 30s/40s gospel music (Ray Charles) gospel strand: tension created- secularization of scared songs. context (clubs) and lyrics seen as offensive. - gospel influence is rooted in African American church R&B style emerging in the early 50s: DooWop - rooted in tradition of black harmony groups - black groups would record a song on a minor label, then a mainstream label would record it with white artists. ch. 16: Rhythm and Blues in the Early 1950s B.B. King from “Honkers and Shouters: The Golden Years of Rhythm and Blues” by Arnold Shaw ch. 18: Ray Charles, or, When Saturday night Mixed It Up with Sunday Morning from “Brother Ray: Ray Charles’ Own Story” by Ray Charles & David Ritz ch. 19: Jerry Wexler A Life in R&B from “Rhythm and the Blues: A Life in American Music” by Jerry Wexler and David Ritz - R&B came to be well known through cover songs - Jerry Wexler: ran Atlantic Records in the 50s and 60s - he explains why R&B was so intriguing to teenagers in this period - discusses authenticity vs. commercialism - discusses crossover: music industry was structured so that: large labels catered to main stream audience, sold pop, white acts. 50s (Atlantic was the first): labels tried to market R&B music to white teenagers - independent, marginal labels selling R&B music ‘as is’ to white teenagers - this caused controversy -> racial tension still existed - many did not want to see mixing of blacks and whites - black community didn’t approve of lyrical content of R&B music with gospel sound - R&B evolved into rock n roll ch. 20: The Growing Threat of Rhythm and Blues “Top Names Now Singing the Blues as Newcomers Roll on R&B Tide” Variety Magazine “A Warning in the Music Business” Variety Magazine - critical of large record companies that were producing ‘substandard’ music that relied on cheap lyrics/sexual innuendo. said it was corrupting youth. but companies just wanted to make money, regardless of morality. (independent labels threatened Tin Pan Alley composers from having a market) ch. 21: Langston Hughes Responds “Highway Robbery Across the Color Line in Rhythm and Blues” by Langston Hughes - he sees it as “black roots, white fruits” - sees black people developing the genre, but white people capitalizing on its success - white singers imitating black styles of music & experiencing extreme success - problems with his argument: defines “black style” and “white style” as a dichotomy. (many black musicians were exploited in the business. many composers/performers didn’t make money off of it, but when a white artist imitated them, the white artists profited) #4 - BB King - “Three O’Clock Blues”; 1951, urban blues - vocal improv, call/response, 12 bar blues #11 - Clara Ward, “How I Got Over” (1950), gospel - call response (preacher/congregation) - musical tradition brought from cross Atlantic slave trade #12 - Golden Gate Quartet, “The Golden Gate Gospel Train” (1937), gospel (quartet) - 4 part male a capella - back up singers: accompaniment (not call/response) - train: path to God. immigration. industrialization. #13 - Soul Stirrers w/Sam Cooke, “How Far Am I from Canaan?” (1952), gospel (quartet) - singers: instrumental function #19- Darrell Glenn, “Crying in the Chapel” (1953), country - example of crossover - white version of R&B song #20 - The Orioles, “Crying in the Chapel” (1953), rhythm and blues (doo-wop) - example of crossover - original version - gospel influence #21 - Chords, “Sh-Boom” (1954), rhythm and blues (doo-wop) - black group #22 - Crew Cuts, “Sh Boom” (1954), pop - white group -- -- -- -- WEEK THREE [A] R&B evolves into: Rock ‘n’ Roll - rock n roll spread R&B to jukeboxes and record stores in white neighborhood - integrated audiences - ‘babyboomers’ become a new market (post-war economic boom) - 1955-1960 - new audience: ages 13-18 students (had money, time, & desire to break tradition) - the ’45’ (cheap), car radios - Allen Freed - coined “rock ‘n’ roll” - MCd integrated concerts Influences of Rock n Roll: (combo of many styles, not just R&B) - Country Western music - e.g. Elvis: ‘rock-a-billy’ music - DooWop groups - Bo Diddley-much rhythm of R&B/Rock n Roll is rooted in West African music practices as well -> during this time: fear of gender & racial equality. anxiety about what was appropriate to be talked about ch. 22: From Rhythm and Blues to Rock ‘n’ Roll The Song of Chuck Berry from “Chuck Berry: The Autobiography” by Chuck Berry ch. 23: Little Richard Boldly Going Where No Man Had Gone Before from “The Life and Times of Little Richard: The Quasar of Rock” by Charles White ch. 24: Elvis Presley, Sam Phillips, and Rockabilly “Sam Phillips Interview” by Elizabeth Kaye ch. 25: Rock ‘n’ Roll Meets the Popular Press “Rock-and-Roll Called Communicable Disease” from New York Times “Yeh-heh-heh-hes, Baby” from Time “Rock ‘n’ Roll’s Pulse Taken” from New York Times “Why They Rock ‘n’ Roll--and Should They?” by Gertrude Samuels - articles make reference to connections between rock and roll and sex, juvenile delinquency, and the trespassing of societal norms - described it as a “disease” & as a political fad (likened it to Nazi regime) ch. 26: The Chicago Defender Defends Rock ‘n’ Roll “Bias Against ‘Rock ‘n’ Roll’ Latest Bombshell in Dixie” by Rob Roy - ‘white citizens council’ - wrote that rock n wall was a tool to bring the white man “down to the level of the Negro” moral panic, racist undertones, fear or desegregation #23- Bo Diddley, “Bo Diddley” (1955), rhythm and blues, or rock ‘n’ roll - “the bo diddley beat” - same rhythm, using 2 chords -- polyrhythmic effect, also heard in swing, country & blues - instrumentation: drums, morocca (back beat), lead guitar, bass, vocals. blues elements. - caters to teenagers (topical content, straight forward) #24 - Fats Domino, “I’m Walkin’” (1956), rhythm and blues, or rock ‘n’ roll - walking bass line, backbeat on snare drum, blues vamp (1,4,5) - caters to teenagers #25 - Little Richard, “Long Tall Sally” (1956), rhythm and blues, or rock ‘n’ roll - queer performance styles, homo erotic subtext in a lot of his songs and performances - influenced by Pentecostal/gospel church - vocals: similar to Ray Charles - less tuneful - stop-time instrumentals [he plays a chord on piano with orchestra / then sings after with no instrumentation underneath] - shuffle beat rhythm (like in blues) - sax solo, walking bass line - threatened separatists (encouraged integration) - threatened conservatives (encouraged physical response/dancing) - homo erotic: sax played (phallic), Richard playing piano between his legs #26 - Chuck Berry, “School Day” (1957), rhythm and blues, or rock ‘n’ roll - attempted to attract mixed audiences by singing about topics that transended race (school, love, cards) - influenced by R&B, pop, western - blues progression - predictable/simple music structure & lyrics (relatable, singable) - polyrhythmic (piano playing triplet rhythm) #27 - Joe Turner, “Shake, Rattle, and Roll” (1954), rhythm and blues, or rock ‘n’ roll - explicit version - describes mutually pleasurable sexual encounter (first time female pleasure is addressed) - big back up band - raspy, freedom in delivery (vocals) #28 - Bill Haley, “Shake, Rattle, and Roll” (1954), rock ‘n’ roll - clean version - socially appropriate lyrics (enforces gender roles) - typical rock ‘n’ roll set up - more ‘innocent’ style (all the musicians bounce together) [B] 1958 - Plane crashes (Ritchie Valens, Big Bopper, Buddy Holly all killed) - Chuck Berry in trouble with the law - Elvis went into the army - Payola Scandal - Little Richard becomes a minister - some argued rock n roll was dead -> industry filled the void with Teen Pop & Girl Groups Payola Scandal (1958) - companies were paying radio station to play their music exclusively - ASCAP (mostly tin pan alley artists) licensed music to radio stations/theaters/etc was ASCAP - BMI then emerged (rock n roll and R&B artists) - ASCAP was threatened by rock n roll, they argued it had no social value - they argued that DJs must have been taking bribes to play Rock n Roll Teen Pop/Girl Groups - intended to be entertaining to teens but also considered acceptable by parents complaints of Teen Pop: - no cultural value, not complex music, untalented singer, generic arrangement, no message, no musicianship (musicians are not even on stage) - market: teenage girls - men (who controlled the music industry) projected this on girls ... taught them they were supposed to like it Girl Groups - influenced later Rock N Roll (Robert Plant, Mick Jaggar, the Beatles) - similar to DooWop (responding to lead singer) - early 1960s: lyrics conformed to social roles. conservative, modest, passive (e.g. Diana Ross/Supremes). contained performance style, modest/formal dress. sweet voice. - after 64 (Ronettes): women began to break out of modest roles. sang about sex, pursuing males, desires, ambitions. asserting themselves more. dancing, free movement in performance. aggressive, deeper sound (more masculine). Wall of Sound - Phil Specter (produced girl groups such as the Ronettes) developed this sonic quality - he’d take several instruments and create a layering effects by blending instruments together. wash of sound, unable to pick out individual instruments Brill Building - women participating in different levels of production process lyricists, composers, arrangers ... ch. 27: The Music Industry Fight Against Rock ‘n’ Roll Dick Clark’s Teen Pop Empire and the Payola Scandal “Music Biz Goes Round and Round: It Comes Out Clarkola” by Peter Bunzel “Mr. Clark and Colored Payola” from New York Age ch. 28: Brill Building and the Girl Groups from “Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow? Girl Groups From the 1950s On...” by Charlotte Greig Girl Groups, Girl Culture “Respectability Vs. Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Jacqueline Warwick #29 - Willie Mae Thornton, “Hound Dog” (1952), rhythm and blues - belt, chest voice, assertive, aggressive - electric bass #30 - Elvis Presley, “Hound Dog” (1956), rock ‘n’ roll - upright bass - Elvis: influenced by gospel church. racial ambiguity, caused social anxiety. - gender ambiguity (also appropriates feminine characteristics) - hyper sexual performance - from the south, teen idol. lyrics: express disdain #31 - Buddy Holly, “Peggy Sue” (1957), rock ‘n’ roll - also southern white, but not teen idol - static performance, no physicality or engagement - lyrics: affectionate - vocal style: “hiccup” or glottle - nasal, higher range, lighter tone #33 - Little Richard, “Tutti Frutti” (1955), rhythm and blues, or rock ‘n’ roll - extroverted, performative - vocal freedom (use of stop-time) - lyrics: about loving/being with two women #34 - Pat Boone, “Tutti Frutti” (1956), pop-styled rock ‘n’ roll - static, no rhythmic or vocal freedom - lyrics: about loving/being with one woman (socially appropriate) #36 - Frankie Avalon, “Venus” (1959), pop - chorus of ‘wooing’ sounds sung by females - he is asking Venus to bring him a beautiful girl - auto-harp plays accompaniment, high bells, spanish rhythm/percussion - higher range, not tuneful, no hook #37 - Chuck Berry, “Sweet Little Sixteen” (1958), rock ‘n’ roll #40 - Shirelles, “Will You Love Me Tomorrow?” (1961), girl group #X1 - Shirelles “What Does a Girl Do?” (1963), girl group/pop/R&B -- -- -- -- WEEK FOUR [A] Soul - connected to 60s civil rights movement James Brown - A
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