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NUTR 301 (3)
Midterm

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Department
Nutrition and Dietetics
Course
NUTR 301
Professor
Peter Bender
Semester
Winter

Description
Perception Introduction: 1. perception --> brain intercepts sensory information notion of “gestalt’whole is greater than the sum of its part (focus on the whole picture, not all the very little details - tiresome) 2.attention: attend to meaningful stimuli and filter out irrelevant stimuli 3.“inattentional blindness”: you are told to focus on something and miss something completely obvious (eg. a gorilla) you miss things, things happen 4.habituation of stimuli 5.perceptual set: setting the scene so that you think of something, that you are not sure what it was before, to be something Eg.12345, ABCDEFGHI exercise *what has preceded something 6.subliminal perception: happens at a lower level but it might affect what’s going on (below the conscious level of awareness) eg. FedEx hidden arrow Bottom up and top down processing: a) bottom up: brain pieces together parts, shapes, lines... when you have enough information, becomes a meaningful message b) top down: brain identifies known patterns (you have a known pattern that you’re working with and you’re trying to find it - finding a person you know at the airport) Principles of perceptual organization: 1. figure ground: “disembedding” object - background -the ability to disembed the figure from the ground (a) ambiguous figure (old woman/young girl): show non ambiguous pictures to make the viewer see what you want =perceptual set (b)reversible figure: face profile/vase (i) camouflage --> hidden, blend in eg. where’s waldo? - easy to see him on a page with nothing else, but harder when there are other components of the image distracting you 1. Laws of grouping: (a) similarity: (birds of a feather tend to be seen together) x o x x o x x o x we tend to see columns rather than saying rows of “x o x” (b) proximity: tend to group the lines into pairs than see them in any other way _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ (c) continuity: we tend to see a-->b, and c-->d and not a-->d or c-->b i) closure: we are able to fill in the missing gaps =gestalt psychology will recognize a circle even if it’s not full drawn will still see a triangle even if it’s drawn with dashed lines the mind fills in the gaps Perceptual constancy: Size, shape, colour, and brightness remains the same regardless of what the retinal image is Eg. don’t be stupid, your hand isn’t bigger than the room (when you hold it up in front of your face) *ponzo illusion: because A is further away than B, it looks bigger Depth perception (a) binocular cues Visual cliff experiment --> children learning about depth Need both eyes: each eye sends different messages This is called “retinal disparity” --> eyes 2 1/2 inches apart eyes building a composite of depth Convergence: signals from muscles that turn the eyes “3-D” - taking to separate images/videos your eyes superimpose them when you have the glasses on Monocular cues: (one eye) Could a cyclops land an airplane? 1. Linear perspective 2. Relative size not absolute size 3. Interposition: something that tells us what is in front there is a leg behind the suitcase, it’s not just cut off 4.Texture gradient: things that are closer to you have more detail - it gets blurrier as you go back 5.Relative clarity”: why mountains in the background
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