PHAR 300 Pre-Midterm (lecture 1~13) notes.docx

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Department
Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Course
PHAR 300
Professor
Edith Zorychta
Semester
Fall

Description
healthy life styles, can certainly prevent „bending‟ of spine in older individuals (It is far better to prevent something than cure it) • Drugs are very helpful for veterinary medicine (not just humans) • Drugs are used for agriculture: effective drugs can prevent/treat plant disease and kill harmful insects. • As mentioned, plants have their own drugs for protection-purposes. Interestingly, some of our best insecticides are derived from plants. • Using drugs also raise environmental concern; effects on water, plants, wild-life, etc. • For humans, drugs are also used for performance alteration (ex. Athletes, Olympics) • Pharmacology is the bridge among many different disciplines Pharmacy vs. Pharmacology • Pharmacists sell drugs at their offices (more business-like) • Pharmacologists are involved in studying drugs, developing and testing drugs, etc. Toxicology • A sub-specialty of pharmacology, a science of poisons • Plant contains a variety of toxins. • Poisons can show up at many different, rather strange places (ex. Without high enough temperature, pottery can give out unexpected toxins) • There are always potential toxins in foods. National agency and laboratories monitor/check food sources and make sure there‟s no contaminant. Side effects of drugs & Drugs interactions • Drugs have side effects. In addition, when taking more than one types of drugs, they may interact with each other. All these can make one‟s life quite miserable. • One of the most important things that you must remember about pharmacology is that there‟s no such thing as a drug without side effects. Every drug, as it alters biological systems, inevitably produces side effects in at least some individuals (wonderful drugs for A may cause horrible things on B) • The crucial thing is to know what the side effects are, and document and understand about them. You also have to consider + and – of the particular drug when taking or prescribing drugs. • Some drugs may have very few and minor side effects, but one must be always concerned about their side effects, and the drugs‟ pros (+) & cons (-). • Side effects (by overdose or interactions) on babies/young children are of particular concern because they are very vulnerable and their abilities to metabolize drugs are not great at that point in time. History of pharmacology • People have used drugs and plant parts to treat disease. They knew that plants are very potent sources. They gradually draw out and develop some useful drugs from plants. • In days of Hippocrates, people used all different plant parts. We still do. • In Hippocrates‟ time, understanding of the human body and disease was primitive, and
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