PHAR 300 Pre-Midterm (lecture 1~13) notes.docx

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Pharmacology and Therapeutics
PHAR 300
Edith Zorychta

healthy life styles, can certainly prevent „bending‟ of spine in older individuals (It is far better to prevent something than cure it) • Drugs are very helpful for veterinary medicine (not just humans) • Drugs are used for agriculture: effective drugs can prevent/treat plant disease and kill harmful insects. • As mentioned, plants have their own drugs for protection-purposes. Interestingly, some of our best insecticides are derived from plants. • Using drugs also raise environmental concern; effects on water, plants, wild-life, etc. • For humans, drugs are also used for performance alteration (ex. Athletes, Olympics) • Pharmacology is the bridge among many different disciplines Pharmacy vs. Pharmacology • Pharmacists sell drugs at their offices (more business-like) • Pharmacologists are involved in studying drugs, developing and testing drugs, etc. Toxicology • A sub-specialty of pharmacology, a science of poisons • Plant contains a variety of toxins. • Poisons can show up at many different, rather strange places (ex. Without high enough temperature, pottery can give out unexpected toxins) • There are always potential toxins in foods. National agency and laboratories monitor/check food sources and make sure there‟s no contaminant. Side effects of drugs & Drugs interactions • Drugs have side effects. In addition, when taking more than one types of drugs, they may interact with each other. All these can make one‟s life quite miserable. • One of the most important things that you must remember about pharmacology is that there‟s no such thing as a drug without side effects. Every drug, as it alters biological systems, inevitably produces side effects in at least some individuals (wonderful drugs for A may cause horrible things on B) • The crucial thing is to know what the side effects are, and document and understand about them. You also have to consider + and – of the particular drug when taking or prescribing drugs. • Some drugs may have very few and minor side effects, but one must be always concerned about their side effects, and the drugs‟ pros (+) & cons (-). • Side effects (by overdose or interactions) on babies/young children are of particular concern because they are very vulnerable and their abilities to metabolize drugs are not great at that point in time. History of pharmacology • People have used drugs and plant parts to treat disease. They knew that plants are very potent sources. They gradually draw out and develop some useful drugs from plants. • In days of Hippocrates, people used all different plant parts. We still do. • In Hippocrates‟ time, understanding of the human body and disease was primitive, and
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