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[PHGY 210] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 79 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHGY 210
Professor
Varied
Study Guide
Final

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McGill
PHGY 210
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
1
ENDOCRINOLOGY - Coordination of Physiological Processes
- In Living Organism-> Must be Coordination of Physiological Activities Taking Place Simultaneously
Movement
Respiration
Circulation
Digestion
Excretion
Metabolism
-CNS & Endocrine System = Represent the 2 Major Means to Coordinate All 6 Functions
LONG DISTANCE COMMUNICATION
-Communication Between Cells Not in Contact - Achieved Through Chemical Substances in Blood Stream
1- Chemical Substances
Secreted by Releasing Cells
2- Interact with Specific
Receptors on Distant Target Cells
3- Signaling Through Receptors Leads
to Specific Physiological Effect
ENDOCRINE SIGNALING - Blood Circulation
Involves Hormone Secretion into
Blood by Endocrine Gland
1- Anterior Pituitary Gland -> Secrete LH & FSH
2- LH & FSH Carried by Blood Circulation to Gonads Target Site (Ovary/Testis)
3- LH & FSH Cause Gonads to Secrete Steroid Hormones = Estrogen/Androgen
NEUROENDOCRINE SIGNALING - Hormone Released by Nerve/Neuron
1-Autocrine Signaling
2-Paracrine Signaling
- Cell Release Hormones/Signaling Substance
& Affect Cell Itself (Growth Factor)
- Cell Release Hormone/Signaling
Substance to Affect Neighbor Target Cells
NEUROENDOCRINE SIGNALING
Hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary
3rd Endocrine Gland
Hormone A Secreted
Hormone B Secreted
Hormone C Secreted
Plasma Hormone A
Plasma Hormone B
Plasma Hormone C
Hypothalamo-Pituitary
Portal Vessels
Blood Stream
Target Cells of Hormone C - Response
COMMUNICATION BY HORMONES/NEUROHORMONES
- Involves 6 Steps - Each Represent Point of Physiological Control (Can be Increased/Inhibited)
1- Synthesis of Hormone
By Endocrine Cells *OR by Neurons for Neurohormone
2- Release of Hormone
By Endocrine Cells * OR by Neurons for Neurohormone Into Circulation
3- Transport of Hormone
/ Neurohormone
To Target Site by Blood Stream - Attached to Carrier Proteins When
Circulates in Blood Stream
4- Detection of Hormone
/ Neurohormone
By Specific Receptor Protein on Target Cells
5- Change in Cellular
Metabolism
Triggered by Hormone-Receptor Interactions -Receptor Recognize Hormone
- Biochemical Changes at Cell/Physiological Response to Chemical Events
6- Removal of Hormone
Which Often Terminates Cellular Response - Some have Short Half-Life
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2
2
"CLASSICAL" ENDOCRINE ORGANS
Hypothalamus
Ant/Post Pituitary
Thyroid/Parathyroid
Heart (ANP)
Adrenal Gland
Pancreas
Ovaries
Testis
HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY SIGNALING
1- Signaling/Communicate via Blood Vessels of Pituitary Stalk= Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System
-> From Hypothalamus to Adenohypophysis/Anterior Pituitary
Anterior Pituitary = Endocrine/Gland Cells
Posterior Pituitary = Neuronal Cells
2- Hypothalamic Neurohormones Either Activate/Inhibit Activity of 1 of 6 Types of
Hormone-Producing Cells in Anterior Pituitary
Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones/ Factors
Hypothalamic Inhibiting Hormones/ Factors
Stimulate Anterior Pituitary to Release
Inhibit Anterior Pituitary from Releasing
CLASSES OF HORMONES BASED ON STRUCTURE
Peptides/Proteins
1-Glycoproteins
2-Polypeptides
Encoded by Gene
Steroids
Amines
Ionic Calcium
Not Encoded by Gene even if Enzyme Encoded
SYNTHESIS OF PROTEIN HORMONES
- Secreted 1-Glycoproteins/2-Polypeptides through Secretory Pathway
1-Synthesis on
Ribosomes
Pre-Pro-Sequence Hormones Translated to Indicate Protein Will be
Secreted
2-Rough ER
Pre-Pro-Hormones-> Pro-Hormones (Endoplasmic Reticulum)
3- Golgi
Apparatus
Pre-Hormones Packaged into Secretory Vesicles
Pre-Hormone -> Hormone + Other Peptide (Cleave= Mature Form)
4-Vesicles
Storage of Hormone
5-Co-Release
of Hormone + Other Peptide
STRUCTURES OF SOME STEROID HORMONES
- 4 Rings + 1 Backbone to Determine Which Receptor Will Recognize
Women= Estradiol
Aromatase Enzyme Burn Methyl Group & Testosterone Spontaneously
Become Estradiol *Also Important in Male Physiology for Bone
Men = Testosterone
*Since Men -> Not Elevated Estradiol Level = Aromatase Enzyme in Target Tissues Convert Testosterone
If Need Estrodiol
STRUCTURES OF THYROID (AMINE) HORMONES - From Thyroxine Amino Acids/Amine
- T4/T3/rT3 - All Thyroid Hormone but rT3 = Not Hormone - Doesn't Bind Hormone Receptor
* rT3-Reverse T3
Clinical Indicator/Level Detected in Circulation-High in Patients With Hyperthyroidism
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