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PHIL 230 Final Exam Review - Bentham

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PHIL 230
Sarah Stroud

BenthamCh 1Pleasure and Pain as Sovereign MastersAll acts are based on the maximization of pleasure and the minimization of pain ICriticism Bentham never provides a true justification for this argument merely stating that as it is so foundational that which is used to prove every thing else cannot itself be proved that there is nothing to which this principle may be compared to in order for justification to occur Rather he appears to prove it inductively and through comparison with other principles which he either mocks or subsumes under the Principle of Utility XI His argument is also akin to the cosmological argument and therefore subject to the same criticisms Criticism Although Benthem notes that the party to which the interest of utility in a given situation may be either a community or an individual he seems to inexplicably assume that the community is that for which happiness must be maximized and not the individual III IV Ch 2Against the Principles of Asceticism SympathyAntipathy and TheologyThe error in Asceticism is that it is directly contrary to Utility in fact it is the misapplication of the Principle of Utility Certain hasty speculators who having perceived or fancied that certain pleasures when reaped in certain circumstances have at the long run been attended with pains more than equivalent to them took occasion to quarrel with every thin that offered itself under the name of pleasure IX The error in SympathyAntipathy is that it is not a positive principle of itself so much as a term employed to signify the negation of all principle XII While this principle will frequently coincide with that of Utility it will frequently err on the side of severity XV XVI The error in Theology is that it too is not really a principle in and of itself for the will of God here meant cannot be his revealed will as scriptures are in need of clerical interpretation The guidance of the interpretation then needs a further standard or principle to be used XVIII Ch 3Four Sources Sanctions of Pain and Pleasure1Physical not purposely modified by the interposition of the will of any being2Political according to the will of the sovereign or supreme ruling power3MoralPopular at the hands of such chance persons in the community
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