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PHIL 341 Study Guide - Final Guide: Karl Popper, Bertrand Russell, Logical Positivism

2 pages111 viewsWinter 2016

Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 341
Professor
Oran Magal
Study Guide
Final

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PHIL 341 - Philosophy of Science
Tuesday, January 19, 2016
Positivism and Logical Positivism
- Positivism: name given to quasi-movement among 19th century philosophers and
philosophically minded scientists
-Emphasis: what can be empirically observed, opposition to metaphysical speculation and
a priori ‘intuition’
-Einstein, tries to bury alternate approaches to positivism as opposed to Kant
Julian Barbour
-Machian approach
-physics without time
Empiricism and Analytic Philosophy
-Logical Empiricism
-serious problem: how to deal with logic and mathematics (positivist want to get rid of
trivial a priori information)
-mathematics is significant but not analytic
-J.S. Mill’s empiricism competed with Kantian and Hegelian idealism for dominance in
philosophical world
-turn of the 20th century - Bertrand Russell and G.E. Moore turned away from Idealism
-wanted roughly the positivism idea but also realism
-“on denoting” 1905 - inaugurates analytic philosophy (russell applies mathematical logic
to philosophy)
Logical Positivism/Empiricism
-Wittgenstein writes a book that ‘solves all philosophical problems’ by means of a logical-
linguistic analysis
The Vienna Circle
-very active and influential through 20s and 30s
-dispersed with the rise of Nazis in Germany
Logical Empiricism and Philosophy of Science
-logical empiricism becomes the ‘received view’ in analytic philosophy of science
-dictates a lot of how philosophy is done more generally
-mid-century mark, things become more complex
Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994)
-leading philosopher of science of 20th c.
-influential outside of philosophy
-the centre of his influence academically, was the LSE
Work
-Skeptical about the theories of verification and confirmation put forward by Carnap et al.
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