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PHGY 212 (8)
Final

final exam review.pdf

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Department
Physiology
Course
PHGY 212
Professor
Julio Martinez Trujillo
Semester
Fall

Description
LAB1INTRODUCTIONTOBIOMEDICALSIGNALS electrophysiologyo flowofionsinbiologicaltissues electricalrecordingtechniqueswhichenablemeasurementofflow relatedpotentialchanges waveformo representationofasignalo plotofamplitudevstime patternofvariationgivesinformationaboutsignal signalso DETERMINISTIC exactlypredictableforthetimespanofinterest describedbymathematicalmodelso STOCHASTIC asignalwhosevaluehassomeelementofchanceassociatedwithit cantbepredicted statisticalproperties probabilityo ANALOGUE continuous exampleso EEG electricalbrainactivityfromscalpo EKGo EOGo DIGITAL onlydefinedatdiscretetimeso analogueconvertedintodigitalusingADconverter spectralanalysiso anywaveformcanbemathematicallydecomposedinasumofdifferentwaveforms resolutionvoltagerangeresolutiono bits2 saturationo example a20Vsignalina5Vrange o inputsignalexceedstheinputvoltagerangeoftheADconverter shouldspanvoltagerangetoincreasesignaltonoiseratio higherratioincreasesresolution aliasing2o artifactualresultduetoimproperchoiceofsamplingrateo Nyquisttheorem samplingratemustbegreaterthantwicethehighestfrequencycontainedintheanaloguesignal inpracticego34xhigherthanfrequencyo quantizationerrorintroducedbydigitizingprocesso determinedbyaccuracyofdigitizingprocess whynotsampleatthehighestratepossibleo costofADconverterincreaseso morecomputerprocessingtimeo computerstoragespaceused filterso lowfrequencyhighpass filtersoutlowfrequencieso highfrequencylowpass filtersouthighfrequencieso notchfilter filtersoutonefrequency usually60Hzo NorthAmericanpowerlineo realfiltershardwarefilters irreversiblechangecompositionofsignal cannotrecoverfrequenciesthathavebeenfilteredouto digitalfilters changethefrequencybyperformingcalculationsondata noiseo unwantedsignalthatmodifiesdesiredsignal thermalnoise interference samplingnoise narrowband broadband artifactso EMG solutionremainstillo EOG solutionlookatfixedimageo skino electrodes solutionbetterpasteorshavehead brainwaves3Hzhighamplitudedominantrhythmininfantsdeepsleepslowwaves3575Hzslowactivitynormalinkidsunder13andsleeping
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