Study Guides (238,599)
Canada (115,242)
Physiology (94)
PHGY 314 (4)

Summary of Cullen's Section.docx

19 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
PHGY 314
Amir Shmuel

Wednesday November 20 2013 PHGY 314 Final SummaryDr CullenThe organization and planning of movementThe brain can be described and examined using the terminology described to the right Another name for anterior is rostral and for posterior is caudal Also the top of the brain stem isrostral compared to the end of the spinal cord which is caudal The brain was first given these coordinates in a rat which is why the superior surfaceis called dorsal like back The first stages of the development of the CNS occur in structure called a neural tube The neural tube has three parts as illustrated in the first picture below These three structures develop into even morecomponentsForebrain from prosencephalonTelencephalic vesicles eventually curl over themselves to form 2 cerebral hemispheres One olfactory bulb sports out of each telencephalon The hollow part forms into the brains vesicles Thecorpus callosum keeps the two hemispheres connected Diencephalon caudal to the telencephalic vesicles during development it is hidden by the curling of the hemispheres later onEventually dorms the thalamus and hypothalamus Optic vesicles bud off the diencephalon Form the opticnerve The retina is at the end of these vesicles Midbrain from mesencephalonTectum forms the roof of the midbrain Develops into 4 hills The most rostral are called superior colliculi or optic tectum and the most caudal are called the interior colliculi Involved in orienting behaviour and in auditorystore Cerebral aqueduct a CFS filled canal that thoughshirks is maintained throughout life Tegmentum forms the floor of the mesencephalon Hindbrain from rhombencephalonMetencephalon rostral forms the pons and cerebellum Dorsal develops into the cerebellum andventral develops into pons1 Wednesday November 20 2013 Myelecephalon caudal forms the medullaContribute to the fourth ventricle The neural tube is completely filled with CFSDuring development the neural tube undergoes systematic flexures The brain develops into specialized regions because of differing concentrations of molecular signals along the structureFor example the border between the hindbrain and midbrain is created by Wnt inhibitors forebrain and midbrain and Wnt signalling hindbrain These molecular signals encourage the transcription factor domains Otx2 and Gbx2 respectively to produce theappropriate proteins in the appropriate regionsComparison of Rat vs HumanbrainSimilar overal structureRat Human Smooth telencephalic lobes Many convolutions ie folds The groves are sulci s sulcus and bumps are gyro s gyrus Large olfactory bulbs This is because Very small olfactory bulbs Humans rely on their they rely this neural region a lot cerebral cortex a lot more Cerebral hemispheres do not wrapTelecephalic lobes curl around the diencephalon like a rams horn to allow for more cortex tissue and minimize the size of the head DifferencesSulci and gyri common landmarks for describing the brain Note that the larger a structure is and the more grooves it has the more important that regionis to the species daily life2
More Less

Related notes for PHGY 314

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.