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Midterm #2 identities.docx

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 211
Fillippo Sabetti

Identities Ghazal Naimi House of Commons:  Lower hose of the Parliament of UK  Meets in the Palace of Westminster  Democratically elected body of 650 members of parliament (MPs) o Members are elected to represent constituencies by first-past- the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved.  Relationship with gov‟t: o The prime minister must maintain the support of the House of Commons.  If prime minister fails to do so, the Monarch appoints the person who has the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons.  Prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons.  When a motion of no confidence is passed, the prime minister is obliged to resign or let another MP request the dissolution of Parliament. David Cameron:  Prime Minister of the United Kingdom  First Lord of the Treasury  Minister for the Civil Service  Leader of the Conservative Party  Represents Witney as its MP.  In the May 6 th2010 election, the Conservatives won 307 seats in a hung parliament. o After 5 days of intense negotiations, Cameron formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats.  Youngest British Prime Minister since the Earl of Liverpool 198 years earlier. o Also the first to lead the first coalition government of the UK since WWII. Magna Carta: is an Angevin charter, originally issued in Latin in the year 1215.  The charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary. o For example: by explicitly accepting that no “freeman” could be punished except through the law of the land, a right which is still in existence today. o First document forced onto a King of England by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges.  Proceeded by Charter of Liberties in 1100 in which King Henry I had specified particular areas wherein his powers would be limited. o The charter was an important part of historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law in the English-speaking world. o Important in the colonization of American colonies as England‟s legal system was used as a model for many of the colonies as they were developing their legal systems. o Survived to be known as “sacred text” o It influenced the early settlers in New England, and inspired later constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution. Westminster model: a democratic parliamentary system of government modeled after the politics of the United Kingdom.  The term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.  The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature.  Used in most commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth nations upon being granted responsible government.  Important features: o A sovereign, or head of state—who is the normal or legal and constitutional holder of power, holds numerous reserve powers, but whose daily duties mainly consists of performing ceremonial functions.  For example: Queen Elizabeth II, or the Governor General in most independent Commonwealth countries, or the presidents of many countries and state/provincial governors in republican federal systems. o A head of government, known as the prime minister, premier, or first minister.  Even though the head of state appoints the head of government, the constitutional convention is that the majority of elected Members of Parliament must support the person appointed. o A de facto executive branch usually made up of members of the legislature with the senior members of the executive in a cabinet led by the head of the government.  These members execute executive authority on behalf of the nominal or theoretical executive authority. o Parliamentary opposition (a multi-party system) o An elected legislature, is where one house is elected— legislative members are elected by their district in the first- past-the-post elections  [Election that is won by the candidate with more votes than any other (s). It is common but not universal, feature of democratic political systems with single- member legislative districts and tends to promote two- party competition](as opposed to countrywide rep.) o A lower house of parliament with an ability to dismiss a government by “withholding (or blocking) Supply”—meaning rejecting a budget, passing a motion of no confidence  (A parliamentary motion which when passed would demonstrate to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in one or more members of the appointed government.) Or defeating a confidence motion. The Westminster system enables a government to be defeated or forced into a general election. o A parliament that can be dissolved and elections called at anytime. o Parliamentary privilege which allows the legislature to discuss any issue deemed by itself to be relevant, without fear of consequences stemming from defamatory statements or records thereof. o Minutes of meetings—usually called Hansard, including ability for the legislature to strike discussion from these minutes. Parliamentary sovereignty: a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.  It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty  Is supreme over all other government institutions (including executive, or judicial bodies)  The legislative body may change or repeat any previous legislation so that it is not bound by written law (in some cases, a constitution) or by precedent.  Parliamentary sovereignty may be contrasted with the doctrines of separation of powers—which limits the legislature‟s scope often to general law making, and judicial review, where laws passed by the legislature may be declared invalid. Welfare state: is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.  Based on the principles of: o Equality of opportunity o Equitable distribution of wealth o Public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions of a good life.  The general term covers a variety of forms of economic and social organization.  The welfare state involves a transfer of funds from the state, to the services provided (i.e. healthcare, education) as well as directly to individuals (“benefits”).  The welfare state is funded through redistributionist taxation (often referred to as a type of “mixed economy.” Marginal seats: a constituency held with a small majority in a legislative election, generally one conducted under a single-winner voting system.  In Canada, they may be known as target ridings. o The opposite is a safe seat.  These seats only require a small swing to change hands and therefore are typically the focus of most campaign resources.  The concentration of money and manpower in areas where they will make the most difference is known as targeting.  Strategies for securing swing seats: o Pork-barreling British disease v. French disease: The British disease is the pattern of strikes and industrial unrest in the 1970s and early 1980s supposed by many during this time to be endemic in Britain and to weaken the British economy  Whereas; French disease
 Equality leads to democratic despotism
 Popular govt becoming top down govt
 • French national school
 • In America or UK
 o Not as centralized
 o Bottom up govt (local → state → federal) Labour Party: is the centre-left political party in the UK, one of two main British political parties along with the Conservative Party.  Founded in 1900  Overtook the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s by forming minority gov‟ts under Ramsay MacDonald  The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940-1945, after which it established a majority government under Clement Attlee.  They won 258 seats in 2010 general election; the party currently forms the Official opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.  Labour has a minority government in the Welsh Assembly  The Labour Party is a member of the Socialist International and Party of European Socialists. o The current leader of the party is Ed Miliband MP. Irish Question: was a phrase used mainly by members of the British ruling classes from the early 19 thcentury until the 1920s.  Used to describe Irish nationalism and the calls for Irish independence in 1800 Act of Union which joined parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland into single governing body based in Westminster with its usage persisting until the signing of the Anglo- Irish Treaty in 1921.  The Irish question affected British politics much the way that the nationalities problem affected Austria. o Normal British domestic issues could not be adequately addressed because of the political divisions created by Ireland. o The split of the Liberal party hurt the cause of further social and political reform. o The people who could agree about reforms could not agree on Ireland, and Ireland seemed more important. o Because the two traditional parties failed to deal with the social questions, by the turn of the 20 thcentury a newly organized Labour Party began to fill the vacuum. Glorious Revolution of 1688: the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau.  William‟s successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England.  King James‟s policies of religious tolerance after 1685 met with increasing opposition by members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the king‟s Catholicism and his close ties with France. o The crisis facing the king came to a head in 1688 with the birth of the King‟s son, James Francis Edward Stuart on June 10 .h  This changed the existing line of succession by displacing their heir presumptive, his daughter Mary, a protestant and the wife of William of Orange, with young James as heir apparent. o The establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty in the kingdoms now seemed likely.  Some of the most influential leaders of the Tories united with members of the opposition Whigs and set out to resolve the crisis by inviting William of Orange to England, which the stadtholder, who feared an Anglo- French alliance, had indicated as a condition for a military intervention. o William crossed the North Sea and English Channel with a large invasion fleet in Nov. 1688 and after two minor clashes between the opposing armies, James‟s regime collapsed (because of lack of resolve shown by the King)  Following a defeat of forces at the Battle of Reading th on Dec. 9 , James and his wife fled the nation for France.  By threatening to withdraw his troops, William in Feb 1689 convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament to make him and his wife joint monarchs. o The Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England.  This was disastrous both socially and politically for the British Catholics.  Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in Westminster Parliament for over a century  Also denied commissions in the army  And the monarch was forbidden to be Catholic or to marry a Catholic (a prohibition still in force). o The Bill of Rights of 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute power.  Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe. o Last successful invasion of England.  Also ended all attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch th wars of the 17 century to subdue Dutch Republic by military force.  John Hampden first used the expression “Glorious Revolution” in late 1689, and the British Parliament still uses this expression today. Significance of Venice:  Mixed constitutions  Existence of a substantial middle class  Social solidarity formed here.  Allowed poor people into office—equality between classes  Religious brotherhoods—dependence on one another.  Podestà—high officials in many Italian cities. Commune: an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, property, possessions, resources, and in some communes, work and income.  In addition to the communal economy, consensus decision-making, non-hierarchical structures and ecological living have become important core principles for many communes. Podestà: the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities since the Middle Ages.  The term derives from the Latin word “potestas,” meaning power. o This development of a term meaning “power” or “authority” to be eventually the title of the person holding such power is parallel to the development of the Islamic term “Sultan.” Main characteristics of urban law: pg 70-80  Economic o The revival of commerce o Rise of merchant class o Expansion of agriculture  Political o Covenant= people obey the gov‟t and the gov‟t provides…. Social contract theory/agreement  Social o Rise of a class of artisans, and industrial producers = MIDDLE CLASS  When you have artisans and craftsmen, it means you‟ve started to have a division of labour meaning it‟s the start of a middle class. o People were able to change social classes o Rise of cities that provided opportunities o Slavery hardly existed o Less feudalism= more for the individual o Politically rulers were often able to increase their military and wealth by chartering towns. o Citizens were able to bear arms  Religious and legal factors o Merchant guilds and religious brotherhoods Limited monarchy in England: (otherwise known as constitutional monarchy) is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution.  This form of government differs from absolute monarchy in which an absolute monarch serves as the source of power in the state and is not legally bound by any constitution and has the powers to regulate his or her respective government.  Most constitutional monarchies employ a parliamentary system in which the monarch may have strictly ceremonial duties or may have reserve powers, depending on the constitution.  Under this kind of monarchy, there is also a prime minister who is the head of government and exercises effective political power.  Several federal constitutional monarchies exist today. o In these countries, each subdivision has a distinct government, but all subdivisions share a monarch who is head of state of the federation as a united whole. Absolutism in France: was a political system associated with kings such as Louis XIII and, more particularly, Louis XIV.  Absolutism or absolute monarchical rule was developing across th Europe during the 16-17 centuries.  Cardinal Richilieu was a staunch supporter of absolutism.  Absolute rule meant that the power of the monarch was unlimited except by divine law by what was called “natural law”. o In an absolute society, the only person who could change the powers of the monarch was the monarch him/herself.  Very difficult to think in terms of an absolute monarch diluting his/her own authority and power.  Absolute rule replaced a system whereby the monarch worked with others. o Prior to this rule, the king of France worked with the estates.  He was still powerful, but he shared authority with them.  When this system broke down, a country could descend into a civil war.  In a French absolute society, the king‟s word was law. o The standing army was a symbol of an absolute monarch‟s authority and power was based and enforced by it. o Blah blah ..blah and blah. Who were really the early developers? And Why?: They‟re early developers because they were unified faster.  Cultural determination  Made sense for large states to form—these states had the ability to achieve that. Britain France Tony Blair: is a British Labour Party politician nd  Served as the Prime Minister of the UK from May 2 1997- June 27 th2007.  Member of Parliament from 1983-2007  Leader of the Labour Party from 1994-2007.  Under his leadership, the party used the phrases “New Labour” and “New Socialism” to define its policy, and moved away from its support of state socialism since the 1960s and created a new version of the ethical socialism that was last pursued by Clement Attlee.  Blair has criticised capitalism for its claim that wealth would trickle down.  Blair‟s government implemented a number of o 1997 manifesto pledges o Introduced the minimum wage o Human Rights Act and Freedom of Information Act o Carrying out devolution o Establishing the Scottish Parliament o The National Assembly for Wales o The Northern Ireland Assembly  His involvement in foreign and security policy, including in Northern Ireland, where he participated in the 1998 Good Friday Agreement—a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s (an international agreement between the British and Irish governments).  He‟s the longest-serving Prime Minister o The only person to have led the Labour Party to three consecutive general election victories o The only Labour Prime Minister to serve consecutive terms more than one of 4 years. Margaret Thatcher: a British politician.  Longest-serving Prime Minister of the UK. (1979-1990) o Only woman to have ever held the post.  Nicknamed the “Iron lady” o Which became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style.  As Prime Minister, she implemented Conservative policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.  She used to be a research chemist before becoming a barrister then elected MP in 1959.  In 1975, she defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election and became Leader of the Opposition o As well as the first woman to lead a major political party in the UK.  After becoming PM, she introduced a series of political and economic initiatives to reverse what she perceived to be Britain‟s precipitous national decline.  Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasized deregulation (of financial sector) Vichy regime: the French government collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940-August 1944 during WWII.  Called itself the French State (État Français) o Was headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain  Who proclaimed the government following the 1940- allied defeat against Axis powers…  The Vichy regime maintained some legal authority in northern zone of France (which was occupied by German Wehrmacht)  The Vichy regime was the most powerful in the unoccupied southern “free zone” where it‟s administrative center of Vichy was located. o November 1942, the German Wehrmacht also occupied this region.  Pétain collaborated with the German forces in exchange for an agreement not to divide France between the Axis powers. o Vichy authorities aided in the rounding-up of Jews and other “undesirables,”  Vichy military forces also actively opposed the Allies.  The legitimacy of Vichy France and Pétain‟s leadership was challenged by CDG—who claimed to represent the legitimacy and continuity of the French government. o Public opinion turned against the Vichy regime and resistance to them increased. o Following the Allied invasion of France in July 1944, CDG proclaimed the GPRF. o The Vichy regime‟s leaders were put to trial by the GPRF and a number were executed for treason, war crimes, and complicity in the Holocaust. Colbertism: is an economic and political doctrine of the 17 th century  Created by Jean-Baptiste Colbert o French minister of finance under Louis XIV  Colbertism is a variant of mercantilism, and is more a collection of economical practices than a true current of economic thought.  Characteristics: o Central principle is that the wealth and economy of France should serve the state. o State intervention was needed to secure the largest part of limited resources. o To accumulate gold, a country always had to sell more goods abroad than it bought.  Colbert sought to build a French economy that sold abroad and bought domestically. Charles de Gaulle:  French general and statesmen o Led the Free French Forces during WWII
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