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POLI 212 Final: Poli 212 Final Exam Review

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Political Science
POLI 212
Anthony Imbrogno

POLI 212 Final Exam Review Strategy for Answering Final Exam Questions • Relate each question to course categories o What is Europe, the State & Democracy, the EU, Political Parties, Electoral Systems & Referenda, Legislative & Executive, Courts, Federalism, Social Movements, National/Ethnicity/Power Sharing, Legacy of Communism, Policy Outcomes/the Welfare State/Economic Crises, Globalization • Cite course readings (Book, Articles) • Have a central argument/thesis • Use historical examples • Use 1.5 hours for each essay erdoga • Outline the essay before writing it in an organized manner, don’t scatter the information on the exam sheet • Organize essays by themes Required Question: 1. Explain the EU in the context of European politics, economics, and social/cultural identity. Why was it created? How has it evolved? Is the EU a democratic institution? Problems facing it? How do you envision the future of the EU? What if it fails? a. “What if it fails” article b. Institutions and dynamics that characterize EU politics c. National interests d. Two methods of integration – intergovernmentalism and surpranationalism i. Which integration method should the EU use? e. Role of the “nation-state” in Europe Optional Question: 1. Analyze the role of nationalism and nation building in Europe. How has power- sharing/consociationalism worked? 2. Legacy of Communism in Europe a. Transition Paradigm b. Path dependency 3. Corporatism v. Pluralism a. Globalization b. Post-material goals c. Welfare state d. Social movements 4. Majoritarian v. Consociational (Consensus) Democracy – Arend Lijphart Required Question: • Role of the “nation state” in Europe o Historically ties back to feudalism ▪ Under feudalism, no conception of a nation states ▪ Rather, loyalty was to the feudal landlord o Bitter conflict over religion led to Peace of Westphalia (1648) ▪ First conception of a nation-state emerged ▪ State: legitimate use of force & collection of taxes within defined borders ▪ Nation state: a single nation controls the state apparatus o Creation of nation-states did not reduce conflict ▪ Rather became a more effective killing machine ▪ Rooted in nationalism o EU was formed to change the nature of sovereignty and de-link it from the nation ▪ Pooled sovereignty designed to end conflict o EU has allowed regional movements to exist ▪ Catalonia, Scotland, Wales, Northern Italy, Tyrol • What is the EU? o A political and economic union of 28 member states governed by an internal single market through a standardized system of laws o Capital in Brussels o European Single Market ▪ EU policies aim to ensure: • Free movement of people, goods, services, and capital ▪ Established monetary union centred around the Euro o The whole point is integration ▪ Process of formalizing cooperation between states ▪ Common institutions and rules ▪ Credible commitment to cooperation ▪ Common policies/consensus on issues (economic, social, political, foreign) o Operates through a hybrid system of supranational and intergovernmental decision making o Some people develop a European identity, whereas other insist on their national identity and reject the entire concept of European integration • Why was the EU created? o To prevent war from breaking out in Europe o Aftermath of the carnage and consequences of WW1 and WW2 • Predecessors to the modern EU o European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) ▪ Created in 1957 ▪ Founding members • Germany, France, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy ▪ Pooling of war resources (coal and steel) • Pooling of raw materials on a European level would prevent future wars in Europe ▪ Economic integration that would “spill over” to other areas, thus eliminating war in Europe ▪ Led to EEC o European Economic Community (EEC) ▪ Founded by the Treaty of Rome (1957) ▪ 6 ECSC founding members ▪ In reality, led to customs union and agricultural funding ▪ Integration stalled • Evolution of the modern EU o Single European Act (1986) ▪ Act’s goal was to create a common market for goods, labour, capital by the end of 1992. o Treaty of Maastricht (1993) ▪ Expanded EU powers in Justice and Home Affairs (JHA), foreign policy, set deadlines for transition to Euro ▪ Ratified by referendum or legislature in member states o Constitution for Europe/Lisbon Treaty (2007) ▪ Amends the Maastricht Treaty ▪ Need to reform institutions of expanded EU, connect better to citizens ▪ Streamline policy process ▪ Negotiated by leaders and ratified by member state legislatures ▪ Formed the position of EU Council President, Commissioner for Foreign Affairs o 2004: the first formerly Communist countries joined the EU ▪ Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania • EU institutions o European Commission ▪ EU’s executive/bureaucracy • Leader is the EU’s head of government ▪ Right to propose law • Only the European Commission can propose law • Hence why Brussels is the lobbying capital of Europe ▪ Enforces EU law • Monitors implementation by member states ▪ The budget originates in the European Commission ▪ College of Commissioners • 28 commissioners, one for each member state, headed by a negotiated president • Each commissioner is responsible for specific policy areas ▪ President of the European Commission • Head of government of EU ▪ Commissioners each take an oath swearing to represent the interests of the EU only, not their national governments • Thus, most supranational body of the EU ▪ Has lost influence over time, transferred to European Council • Without the endorsement of the European Council, no one has a chance to become president of the European Commission o Council of EU (formerly called Council of Ministers) ▪ EU’s upper house ▪ Represents the executive governments of member states • Ministers meet to discuss, amend, and adopt laws • Provides the voice of member states • Ministers have the authority to commit their governments to the actions agreed on in the meetings ▪ The 28 member countries of what is now the EU each send one minister (depending on the subject area) to the meetings of the Council • Divided into 10 policy areas • Rotating 6-month presidency (position is held by a national government, not an individual) ▪ Decides on EU laws, either by unanimity or QMV (55% of member states representing at least 65% of the EU population), based on the subject area • Unanimity for more sensitive issues o European Council ▪ The most important and powerful EU body ▪ Brings together chief executives of the 28 member states • Each pursues the interests of their own state ▪ Defines the overall direction, sets strategic priorities and positions, and guides EU institutions ▪ Headed by an appointed president ▪ Make decisions by consensus (general agreement) o European Parliament ▪ EU’s lower house ▪ Co-decision with the Council of EU on EU law • Reconciling policy differences • In certain issues, Parliament is able to veto a proposal of the Council, but Parliament is still not able to impose its own will ▪ MEPs sit in their chambers not according to their nationality but rather according to their party affiliation ▪ 751 MEPs, directly elected in national elections • European People’s Party (centre-right) – German CDU • Liberals & Democrats (centre) – UK Liberal Democrats • Socialists & Democrats (centre-left) – UK Labour • United Left (far-left) – Sinn Fein • Europe of Nations and Freedoms (far-right) – AFD ▪ Voter turnout in European Parliament elections has dropped every 5 years when elections have been held • Raises the question to the extent which European Parliament has been able to establish itself as a representative institution of European voters • The low turnout rates show that citizens perceive politics in Brussels as too far removed to affect them, or that their voice would not make a difference • Low turnout to European Parliament elections = democratic deficit ▪ If Parliament can obtain significant control the budget, it will be the crucial step in transforming the EU into a truly supranational institution • Essential sovereign power will have been transferred from the member states to the European level • The Euro/Eurozone o A powerful countervailing power to the economic hegemony of the U.S. and enhances its impact in the IMF and World Bank o 1999: Euro becomes account currency o 2002: Euro begins using coins and notes o Regulated by the European Central Bank (ECB) o Efforts made to persuade European nations to embrace the Euro ▪ A means of economic integration o Convergence criteria ▪ In order to join the Eurozone, governments must keep their deficits under 3% of GDP and national debts under 60% of GDP ▪ Inaccurate statistics and loose convergence criteria allow weak countries to join o One goal was not attained by the Eurozone ▪ The equalization in the international competitiveness of the participating countries ▪ The PIGS are significantly less competitive than the economies of Germany and France ▪ Fundamentally different economic structures and sizes o Devaluation ▪ A country in the Eurozone cannot devalue its currency in order to make its exports cheaper and imports more expensive • This would put the country on a path to recovery as they become more competitive • Limits a nation’s ability to engage in free trade • A serious undermining of national sovereignty o The Eurocrisis resulted from the creation of a monetary union absent from a political and financial union ▪ Facilitated cheap supplies of money to the periphery and left them with the debt that followed • Problems with the EU o In 2003, France and Germany experienced economic recessions, forcing them to exceed the 3% deficit rule of the convergence criteria ▪ Typically, exceeding these criteria would result in excessive fines ▪ However, Germany nor France was punished to the dismay of many smaller European nations ▪ This added to the existing rift between larger and smaller EU members and to the perception of a divided EU • A large, powerful bloc that could flaunt rules, versus a smaller bloc that was forced to comply o Expansion into the relatively poor countries from Central and Eastern Europe raised concerns about large numbers of workers offering cheap labour arriving from these countries ▪ The new EU members in these areas are engaged in a “race to the bottom” in order to attract FDI from the rest of the EU ▪ Concern that the generous welfare systems of the rich EU states might attract people from the poorer EU states o Disillusionment of the people with the highly elitist character of the EU ▪ Removing of decision making ▪ Centralized power concentrated in Brussels ▪ “Closed room” talks of unelected bureaucrats ▪ “Democratic deficit” • Decisions made do not necessarily correspond to citizen desires o Globalization ▪ Nation state – based on the idea of sovereignty ▪ Blurs the line/divide between European nation states ▪ Triggers a populist reaction because of a diminished capacity of states in terms of decision making ▪ Challenges • Welfare State • Immigration o GFC tested EU capacities/strength ▪ To show the incomplete nature of the EU ▪ Both of members states and of the EU itself ▪ UK wanted stimulus, no new regulation ▪ Germany and France wanted surpranationalism, more regulation to guide markets (preserve EU structure) ▪ Incomplete notion of Eurozone • Monetary, not fiscal union • Loose convergence criteria • Future of EU integration o Increasing federalist trend ▪ Devolution of power to individual nations, regions in response to perceived failure and dissatisfaction with EU elites ▪ Asymmetrical Federalism • Certain regions are given more autonomy ▪ Regional movements o Turkey’s EU membership prospects ▪ Three main concerns • Size, poverty, religion o Question of European identity ▪ “What is Europe, and where does it end?” ▪ With the accession of so many more countries, many of them increasingly diverging in cultures, economic capacities, and religions, on what grounds could a European identity emerge? o Brexit ▪ Split “leave” and “remain” votes (~50/50) ▪ Conservatives split on EU since Thatcher was PM ▪ Rise of nationalist parties such as UKIP push for exit • Eurosceptic parties increasing in popularity ▪ Cameron, Labour, Liberal Democrats all vote to remain • Cameron resigns after Brexit vote ▪ Many voted to leave • Nigel Farage (UKIP leader), Boris Johnson (Conservative) ▪ London and Scotland vote to remain ▪ Less populated and working-class regions vote to leave • Wales votes to leave • Populist rhetoric about workers losing their jobs • Dissatisfaction with the urban elites in London and Brussels ▪ Reaction to perceived failure of closed door EU decision making • Non-elected/undemocratic decisions • Little accountability and transparency • What if Europe fails? (Thomas Wright) o High youth unemployment, increasing social unrest, immigration tension (rising nationalism, xenophobia, Islamophobia) o Collapse would trigger economic crisis because of Germany’s economic role ▪ Key creditor ▪ Main economic powerhouse of EU o Backlash from harsh austerity measures imposed by creditor nations o Crumbling welfare state o Brexit negotiations have already caused global uncertainty o Greek Financial Crisis and Brexit have propelled Germany to the helm of the EU, and the focus of much criticism, most of it rooted in nationalism o Some members are challenging EU democracy ▪ Poland, Hungary (push towards new-radical right under Viktor Orban) ▪ Populist support in Greece, France, Netherlands o Historically, the EU has reacted to crises with more integration or reform ▪ What happens if this option is not available? o Rise of nationalism and populism ▪ The EU arose to prevent the worst manifestations of these phenomenon, but now finds itself under threat from them ▪ “Nation state” as the most effective killing machine ▪ “New radical right” parties • Emerge in reaction to a rise of Muslim immigration and collapse of the welfare state o The risk is not just to EU institutions, but to national institutions ▪ Legislatures, elections, courts, civil liberties, political parties ▪ These institutions have reinforced liberal democracy • What happens to liberal democracy if they come under threat? o If the EU fails, major powers would be forced to manage the failure that would stem from its fall ▪ Financial support and assistance o Two methods of integration ▪ Surpranationalism • Having power or influence that transcends national boundaries or member states o Overarching role • Power is delegated to an authority that stands above the nation state, by consent of the governments of the member states • Integration via the actions of EU institutions o Member states are bound by decisions • ECJ proclaimed the supremacy of EU law in deciding on jurisdictional conflicts between the EU and member states o Centralizing force o Costa v. ENEL ▪ Intergovernmentalism • Treats states and national governments as the primary actors in the integration process o EU institutions are subservient • Integration via negotiations between member states • Cooperation between member states on matters of common interest o Europeanization ▪ Europeanization may mean the EU is ready for globalization, freedom of movement leads to economic strength • Influx of immigrants to maintain productivity will change republican notions of European identity Optional Question: Policy Outcomes Section Corporatism v. Pluralism • Pluralism: situation where many interests compete to influence policy by lobbying o State has no interest of its own ▪ Relies on interests for information o Lobbying in pluralist systems (“weak states”) ▪ Interests are not a permanent part of policy making • Corporatism: tripartite negotiations between the state, employers, unions o State bureaucrats, business associations, trade unions o Rests on a bureaucratic level o Stronger corporate structure in France and Germany, than the UK • Opinions on Corporatism o Supporters argue that market forces cannot always dominate and self-correct, rather the economy must sometimes need direction by state and economic interests o Critics argue that labour leaders are way too powerful in negotiations, and trade unions are not internally democratic ▪ Rich union bosses look out for their own elite interests • Government in Europe is autonomous (“strong state”) o Little influence of interest groups in policymaking o Highly centralized o Limited channels through which actors can influence policy o Clear “national interest” in industrial policy • Contrast to U.S. (“weak state”) o Large influence of interest groups in policymaking o Much more political bureaucracy ▪ Result of partisan appointments • Interests are actively involved in policy making and negotiations o Unlike lobbyists in a “weak state” • Traces its origin in feudalism o Those that were not serfs or lords were members of guilds (based on skill or profession) ▪ Automatically a part of a guild just by being in the profession ▪ Role was to further the interests of their trade • Today, national organizations participate in policy-making with local, regional, and national governments • The result: industrial policy, the welfare state • Corporatism Today o Post Materialism/Social Movements ▪ Influence expanding beyond 3 social partners in order to include social movements ▪ Post material = beyond wages, economic growth • Focus on quality of life, social justice, civil rights, the environment • Grassroots – bottom up, decentralized o How to integrate their demands into the political system? ▪ The corporatist structure is based on the industrial/manufacturing economy that emerged during the IR • Hence, the role of labour unions • How does the post-industrial (high-tech) economy become integrated into this system? o Globalization ▪ Corporatism is a national concept – a nation specific approach to deal with economic and political challenges ▪ As a result of globalization, capital can move to wherever maximizes profits (“free flowing”) • If labour unions do not agree to the demands of capital, capital can move their production facilities outside the country to a location with lower wages and fewer regulations o “Race to the bottom” • Capital can move, labour cannot • In order to avoid such “capital flight,” labour has to give incentives for capital to stay at home • Thus, capital has significantly greater bargaining power over labour ▪ As a result of this shift of power, corporatism has declined ▪ Challenges to globalization: • Crumbling welfare state • Immigration • Populism and nationalism Consolidated Democracy • A stage of democracy that has matured in a way that means that it is unlikely to revert back to authoritarianism • Democratic rules/institutions are internalized o The ideas of democracy are embedded (psychologically) within government and civil society • A democracy cannot be thought of as consolidated until a democratic transition has been brought to completion, and rulers democratically govern and are elected through free elections • 5 Conditions for Consolidated Democracies o Free and lively civil society ▪ Actors with different value
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