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Lecture Notes to Midterm 1

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 222
Antonia Maioni

POLI 222 January 7, 2014 Office 1130 PineAve. West Mondays 1-3 January 8, 2014 Key concepts: • Politics • Power • The state • Government • Authority • Legitimacy • Democracy Politics is about obtaining, managing power and using it to decide on the distribution of scarce resources.  Should reflect values “Who gets what, when, and where.” (Lasswell) • Politics has two aspects: o Power: the ability to influence and decide o Conflict: the way in which this comes about Characteristics of power • For the public good (John Locke) o Making laws with threat of penalty o Regulation of property o Defense • In the authoritative allocation of scarce resources (David Easton) • Variants of power [interrelated]: o Influence  Diplomacy, persuasion, argument, knowledge, news media, beauty, charisma o Authority  Profession, hereditary position, election, marital status, family order, ownership, credentials o Coercion  Verbal threat, weapons, blackmail, extortion, physical size, fines, prison, torture o Downward spectrum from soft power to hard power  “Walk softly, but carry a big stick.” Characteristics of conflict • “Political conflict arises over the allocation of values and/or resources.” (David Easton) • Values: belief in what is moral, important, worthy, etc. o Euthanasia o Pro-life vs. pro-choice in the abortion debate o The definition of marriage o The death penalty • Resources: property, money, food, etc. o Property disputes o Budgetary debates o Government cutbacks o Collective bargaining The state • Max Weber: the state is a set of institutions that: o Possesses the means of violence and coercion against its citizens o Controls a geographically defined territory in which a society is contained o Monopolizes rule-making in its territory • The state has: o Ageographically defined border o Apeople/nation o An army to defend its borders o Acurrency and a monetary policy o International recognition  By the UN o Political system o Agovernment  Its own laws  Responsibility for its citizens o Diplomatic relations o Treaties and allies Four branches of government • Legislature • Executive • Bureaucracy • Judiciary •  Legitimacy: the ability to exert power o The rules and institutions that constitute the state, and which determine how governments are chosen, are accepted by most people as being reasonable. Democracy is… • “Apolitical system based on the formal political equality of all citizens, in which there is a realistic possibility that voters can replace the government, and in which certain basic rights and freedoms are protected,” (Brooks/Menard, p. 25). • Democracy is government by consent of those who are governed • Values: o Popular sovereignty: people have a final say o Political equality o Political freedom o Majority rule January 10, 2014 Change to syllabus: midterms on Mondays, not Wednesdays. Value: a belief in what is good or bad, what is important, what something is worth. Ideology: a set of interrelated values and beliefs about how society is organized and how it ought to function. Political culture: the characteristic values, beliefs, and behaviours of a society’s members in regard to politics. Three main ideologies in Canada (Horowitz): • Democratic socialism – social justice (equality) • Liberalism – freedom (opportunity) • Conservatism – order (responsibility) • There are significant ideological overlaps between Canadian political parties. • Strong foundation of democratic socialism not true of every nation. • Very strong strain of liberalism equality of opportunity, level playing field • Conservatism rooted in sense of government’s primary purpose as ensuring order. Balance of responsibilities and rights, government ensure that people live up to responsibilities. • Party names=/= ideological standing of party Socialism: • Based on the collective or state ownership of the means of production • Equality • Redistribution of wealth • Complete or partial ownership of the means of production • Social programs and active, engaged government • I.e. nationalization of energy (Petro Canada) • Tempered, not revolutionary (accepts democracy) Liberalism: • Belief that the state must protect individual liberty, personal choice, and the right to private property • Individualism • Constitutional protection for rights and freedoms • Protection of private property • Liberal democracy Conservatism: • Belief that traditions and social order are important, and that gradual change is best • Social stability and continuity • Family values • Right-wing politics • Maintaining social and religious institutions Left • Collectivist and social justice ideas • Ideologies and political parties that advocate social reform Right • Ideas and ideologies that advocate social order, protection of private property, economic freedom and capitalism Centre • The mainstream of a society’s politics Approaches to Political Culture: • Fragmentation theory (Hartz) o Ideological development determined by characteristics of values of early immigrants o I.e. liberalism in US 17 /18 century Britain liberalism • Formative events (Lipset) o Major events at critical periods in a society’s development o Why did the fragmentation happen? • Economic (class analysis) o Small minorities use the state to control wealth to maintain their social and economic dominance o Natural resources, concentration of wealth o Not just about beginning, but about economic landscape Political culture: • Common ends (“peace, order, and good government”) • Similar responses to the law • Similar behaviours toward the government What unites Canada? • History • Land mass • Weather • Common political institutions • Communication and transportation links • Interests (in a peaceful and prosperous society) • Values, attitudes, ideas and culture (Possible) common symbols • Queen/Governor General • Flag • National anthem • Parliament buildings • Monuments • National holidays • National heroes • Constitutions • Maple leaf • Democratic values o “Government by consent of those who are governed” o Political sovereignty (people have the final say) o Political equality o Political freedom o Majority rule • Political values o Representative democracy o Personal freedom and civil liberties o Equality before the law and respect for the law o Coexistence with others (ethnic groups, religions, socio-economic classes)  Uniquely enshrined in Charter (multiculturalism) o Charter values • Values about rights o Freedom of speech, conscience/religion, association, peaceful assembly o Minority rights  Language, non-discrimination (race, sex, handicap), multiculturalism and diversity Canadian values expressed through: • Constitutional monarchy/representative democracy • Respect for law/judicial system • Federalism • Social programs • Attitudes toward fairness, sharing, queuing What divides Canadians? • Regional differences • Class/economic differences • Ethnicity • Gender • Age • Rural/urban split • Ideologies • Fault lines: o Quebec-Canada relations o Aboriginal demands for self-government o American influence on Canadian culture and economy o Regional tensions January 20, 2014 Relationship with US • Asymmetrical economic relationship o Highly dependent on US markets for exports and imports o Over ½ of US investment in CA is located in Ontario andAlberta o About 1/3 of Canada’s GDP comes form trade, of which roughly 80% is with the US o Canada went from being a net importer of investment capital to a net exporter around 1996. Canada is one of the top 10 sources of foreign investment in theAmerican economy. • Friendly neighbor political relationship o Has ups and downs  Share a border conflicts about border issues, continental issues, softwood lumber, opinions on war (Vietnam, Iraq)  9/11 example of strength of relationship  Role in IR dominated by close relationship with the US  Sometimes where you stand depends on where you sit • Middle power vs. superpower global relationship How do Canadians perceive themselves? • Often in comparison to the US Regionalism • Population density is low • Changing ethnic landscape o Always been very diverse o Aboriginal peoples diverse amongst themselves • Several climactic zones • Natural resources (wildlife, agriculture, mining, wood, OIL) Demography: • 51% live in : o Golden Horseshoe o Calgary-Edmonton o MontrealArea o Vancouver island/mainland?? • Largest foreign-born population 18% • >1% population growth per year Natural resources • Mineral • Renewable • Fossil fuels • Hydropower Staples: • Fishing • Fur trade • Industrial Revolution • Agriculture and wood • Free trade Differences based on geography • Territories: Nunavut, Yukon, NWT • Pacific Region/Rocky Mountains: BC • Prairie-Provinces:AB, SK, Manitoba • …. Regionalism isn’t just geography, but also politics • North-South divide • West vs. East western alienation • Maritime provinces vs. central provinces: eastern alienation • Urban/rural split long gun registry for example • Economic differences: have/have-not provinces • Linguistic/cultural: Quebec vs. ROC • Demonstrated by: o The party system o Western alienation  Let em freeze in the dark o Economic disparities o Intergovernmental conflict • Addressed by: o Communication:  CBC, CRTC o Transportation:  CN Rail, Via Rail  Air Canada  Trans-Canada Highway, Trans-Canada Pipeline o Equalization  Constitutional principle on equalization  Regional development programs o Parliamentary structures:  Political parties strive for regional representation in the HOC so they can claim to be pluralistic.  The Canadian Senate was designed to increase the representation of regions with low MP representation • Ontario: 24 seats • Quebec: 24 seats • Maritimes: 24 seats • Newfoundland/Labrador: 6 seats • Western provinces: 24 seats • Territories: 3 seats  Regional groups should be represented in cabinet • Region • Aboriginal people • Women • French Canada/Quebec • Immigrants February 3, 2014 • Lord Durham: “Two nations warring in the bosom of a single state,” • Demographics: o 31% speak French o 25% have French ancestry (declining) o Roman Catholic church and la survivance o La revanche des berceaux  Higher birth rate  Encouraged by the Catholic Church  “Patriotic birth” o The Quiet Revolution and “maîtres chez nous”  Masters of our own house. • Nationalism o The province as an engine of modernization and nationalism o Polling o Rising support for sovereignty until recently o Federalism: Conditional on protection for culture and language  Not seen as something that allows them to assert autonomy, does the opposite  Provides barriers to sufficient culturally protectionist autonomy o Increased identification as Québécois (i.e. not Canadian) o 74% still feel strong attachment to Canada o The compact theory: a myth of two founding nations o October crisis 1970: War MeasuresAct  Kidnapping of British trade commissioner and minister of transport (assassinated) by FLQ  Mailbox explosions, etc.  Suspension of civil liberties  Federal government asserted authority over Quebec o The Quiet Revolution  Revolution of the Quebec state  Building up powers and capacity ended to put Quebec’s social and economic house in order  Motivated by state becoming motor of economy  Doctrine that suggested that Quebec was distinct because it should have autonomy/sovereignty over the areas in its jurisdiction (education, social programs, etc.)  Language laws • Not a “separatist plot” • Developed since 1960s to slow down erosion of French language o Bill 22 (Loi sur la langue officielle), 1974: Move towards unilingual French o “Failures”:  First referendum on separation: 1980 (sovereignty association)  Repatriation of the ConstitutionAct: 1982  The last straw • The failure of the Meech Lake (1987) and Charlottetown Accords (1992) on Quebec as a distinct society  Led to: • Creation of the Bloc Quebecois • Second referendum on separation in 1995 • The ClarityAct (2000) • Pre-Constitution o 1759: British conquest o 1774: QuebecAct o 1791: ConstitutionAct o 1840:Act of Union o 1867: British NorthAmerican ConstitutionAct/The ConstitutionAct • Post-Constitution o 1870: Red River Rebellion o 1885: North-West Rebellion o 1890: Official LanguageAct (Manitoba) o 1913: Regulation 17 (Ontario) o 1917: First Conscription Crisis  Didn’t feel connected to imperial imposition o 1944: Second Conscription Crisis  Quebec’s sense of autonomous purpose within Canada as a whole  Voluntary service until late in the war (not enough bodies) o 1980 and 1995: Referenda • ***Phrases: o La survivance: Survival of a “people” o Je me souviens:
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