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POLI 227 Final: Clapham notes

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Political Science
POLI 227
Rex J Brynen

Tuesday, 14 February 2017 Clapham Politics and the Third World Chapter 1 - What distinguishes the 3rd world is it’s economic periphery - geographical periphery is meaningless according to the author - Economic periphery means that such countries are separated and dominated by 1st world, as they often entered the globalised market thru supply of primary products (with no added value in contrast to manufactured goods) - Doesn’t necessarily mean poverty, as one tends to associate 3rd W with - Differences characterised by a lower quality of life - Social and cultural periphery count as well, even tho diversity of 3rd world means that they are v diff from one another. However, they have in common that they are non western, like the non-aligned mvmt - Two movements: nationalist (concentrates on patterns of development) and internationalist (countries are underdeveloped cus of colonialism, focus on economics as a promoter of political dev and class formation) - However, the author finds these approaches to be flawed, combo of both is better: • He believes that colonialism is the main source of current status of these countries, although doesn’t believe that much in neo-colonialism • Must study the political economy of said countries Chapter 2 - Colonisation was not uniform: started in fifteenth century all the way to the 20th century; degree of colonialism depended on countries, populations and motives - Colonisation happened because of technical advances that allowed Europe to assert their power (transport, machines and warfare) as well as strong economic motives - 3 main forms of colonialism: • the Americas, rich and easy to control. Pops were eradicated, allowed imposition of european oriented societies. latin america was also the first to gain independence • Asia, rich but hard to control. Some countries were taken over entirely (ex: India), others had more complicated systems and resulted in dev of nationalist mvmts 1 Tuesday, 14 February 2017 • Africa, poor and depends on country. Interior hard to penetrate, slaves and raw materials only interest. colonial boundaries were put in place without consideration of indigenous societies settlements - In general, boundaries created by countries that were not reflective of the pop, which had an impact later on when those countries became independent. Also, a certain administrative hierarchy and political order was imposed on said societies, using force - (violent) Repression was most common in colonies of settlement, especially when accompanied by intensive production - administrative structure was centralised and authoritative - colonial economy and new socialisation helped reinforce external and internal grasp - France and England (biggest empires) had diff ways of ruling. French preferred assimilating the colonised and being v involved, whereas Eng was indirect rule - End of colonisation happened mainly after WW2, as countries could no longer financially support their colonies, and rise of 2 blocs promoted independence, and finally/most importan
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