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Midterm

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 227
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
POLI STUDY GUIDE21 COLONIZATION TO DECOLONIZATIONTextbook Chapter 1 Understanding UnderdevelopmentCHAPTER 1 UNDERSTANDING UNDERDEVELOPMENTLDC Less Developed Countrieseg Africa Asia the Middle East the Caribbean and Latin Americamost political scientists use the term developing nationsareasthe term Third World suffers from a lot of imprecision MNC Multinational CorporationIMF International Monetary Fund NIC Newly Industrializing Country NGO nongovernmental organizationswhile most developing countries suffer from economic underdevelopment NICs are no longer economically underdeveloped common characteristics of most developing countrieseconomic underdevelopmentthe most salient commonality among underdeveloped countries is their poverty At the national level this is manifested by some combination of low GDP gross domestic product highly unequal income distribution poor infrastructure including communications and transportation limited use of modern technology and low consumption of energy At the grassroots level economic underdevelopment connotes widespread scarcity substantial unemployment substandard housing poor health conditions and inadequate nutrition the percentage of the population dying young is highest among the worlds poorest countries social underdevelopmentThird World poverty tends to correlate with poor social conditions like high infant mortality and low literacy rates which in turn narrow opportunities for human development in other areas an educated workforce contributes to higher labour productivity improved education also expands mass political participation and contributes to greater govt accountability to the governedT countries with higher literacy rates are more likely to attain and maintain democratic govt Human Development Index HDIpolitical underdevelopment many political scientists have concluded that democracy and some degree of socioeconomic equality must be understood as integral parts of political development theres a relationship between the components of development political economic and social underdevelopment are interrelated bc more economically advanced countries can better educate their populations and provide them with superior health care As educated citizenry in turn contributes to further economic growth and participates in politics more responsibly Responsive and legitimate govts constrained by competitive elections are more likely to educate their citizens and to make informed economic decisions the causes of underdevelopmentwhat are the causes of underdevelopment Well it depends on what theory is answering that question theories that attribute Third World political unrest or economic backwardness to traditional cultural values generally come from the US or other developed nations dependency theory and world systems theory see Western exploitation as the root cause of Third World underdevelopment modernization theory vs dependency theory offers a more radical perspective on development 1 modernization theorythe importance of cultural values how can developing countries become economically and politically modernized comparable to the West Developing nations have to acquire modern cultural values and create modern political and economic institutions transforming traditional cultures is the first and most crucial step in the modernization process Weber Parsonstraditional values somewhat irrational ie caste system unscientific vs modern values modern men and women tend to judge each other by universalistic standards ie hire vote for etchow can a traditional society make the transition to modernity How doesa culture modernize its values Using education urbanization and the spread of mass media as central agents of change As peasants move to cities as more children attend schools that teach modern values and as more citizens access the mass media culture modernization will progress what is also important is the diffusion of modern ideas form highly industrialized nations especially the West to the developing world and from city to countryside within the Third World foreign aid and institutions ie Peace Corps can help speed this process at the same time when developing countries modernize they need to also create more specialized and complex political and economic institutions to complement those cultural changes modernizing societies also need trained bureaucracies which base professional advancement on merit rather than personal connections and make decisions according to uniform and consistent standards 2 dependency theorythe core and the peripherydependentistas dependency theorists believe that Third World nations cannot follow in the same path as the developed nations did bc the developed countries changed the situation that the developing countries are in the world is a different place for the developing countries today than it was when the nowdeveloped countries were developing Compare and contrastearly modernization theorists overemphasized the internal causes of underdevelopment dependency theorists erroneously attributed virtually all of the Third Worlds problems to external economic factors ClaphamThe Colonial State and its DemiseEuropean colonialismEuropean colonialism and the creator of political and economic orderMost third world countries today were at one point colonized by one European power or another This created a sort of similarity between them a subordinate positionThis countries must accept the notion that the European countries will always be influential in regard to the rest of the world The former colonies must now try to live up to the standards of statehood the European countries have setThe imposition of colonial ruleColonisation was not all at the same time worldwide ie Latin America was colonised and decolonised before the first countries in Africa were colonised Colonisation took different forms depending on 3 things
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