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Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

POLI 227 MIDTERM REVIEW MODERNIZATION/DEVELOPMENTAL DEPENDENCY/UNDERDEVELOPMENTAL Outline * Thinks that countries should follow the * Rejects modernization theory, blames path that West took colonizers * Must adopt modern values, political and * Believe colonialism & imperialism are what economic institutions destroyed NICs * Education, urbanization and media as * West controls finance & economy agents of change * Economic dependence lead to political * Specialized and complex institutions dependence on the West should be put in place * Believes foreign countries should invest * Growth in communication, but not make economic decisions for LDCs transportation and economic change is *Highlights international trade, finance, necessary investment, economic and political relations * Essentially, social and cultural change *Unequal exchange of goods *Places blame more on colonies *1 Worlds control of technology and themselves, not on colonizers. Colonizers multinational corporations helped development *International debt *when colonizers leave a country, countries are still economically dependent on the colonizers. *Terms of trade from colonizers will deteriorate after colonizers leave *dependent on resources Criticism * Early theory seemed to be *Displays LDCs as helpless victims condescending of other cultures, culturally *Blames all of third world problems on biased external factors * Difficult to differentiate between what * East Indias economic growth has traditional values should be modernized confounded theory *Failed to recognize cultural, political and *Dependency is an approach not a theory economic differences between countries *Failed to recognize cultural, political and economic differences between countries Support *Samuel Huntington * Countries not open to foreign investment *evidence that reducing trade barriers are the most impoverished equals faster economic growth *countries that rely on primary exports do poorly in economic and social development Focus *Modernization, social mobilization, * Trade and finance, multinationals, political institutionalization international debt, class exploitation Level of *State and society *International system and class structure Analysis Problem *After decolonization, countries do not * Dependency and Development often follow smooth progress * Domestic class struggle *Decolonization followed by political disorder *Social mobilization social frustration political power political instability disorder Samuel Huntington Amartya Sen *principal conflicts will be cultural * You cant generalize a civilization because of the *clash of civilizations dominate global politics many aspects to people. *civilization highest form of cultural grouping *the thesis of a civilization clash is parasitic on the *Western, Japanese, Confucian, Islamic, Hinduism, commanding power of a unique categorization Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, Africa (?) *Samuel Huntington has a sharply centered vision *supports modernization theory (believes of hardened divisiveness countries should embrace foreign change) *Thesis is founded on the presumption that the *countries that dont want/cant join the West, world is divided into distinct civilizations compete with the West *the west is trying to redefine Islam *West threatened by nuclear weaponry *by these classifications of people, alienation is *West needs to accept that non-West countries being enforced. will modernize but not Westernize, and that *Not bring the world any closer to a global similarities and acceptance are crucial solution *descriptive weakness of choice less singularity *does not take into account internal conflicts and has the effect of impoverishing the power and divisions within civilizations and cultures i.e. reach of our social and political reasoning Middle-East is Islamic, yet divided *criticized for his stability fetish Colonialism Decolonization Americas *first wave in 15 , 16 , 17 century *lasted around 300 years ago *colonial rule rigid and brutal (natives *Spanish & Portuguese held weak control exterminated or made slaves) * Political power passed to local white elite *very small % retained native *Hierarchy dominant and evident culture/language *Influenced by American and French *distinction made between colonial white Revolutions, Napoleonic wars, US and elite, native whites, mixed blood, Indians British Policy i.e. Monroe Doctrine and black slaves proved change of social *Europeanized, white elite, populations led order struggle for independence, nationals *economic order changed (plantations) movements rooted in changes in local *political control passes from metropolis society to local white elite Asia *explored for trade, then conquest *lasted India around 200 years *1 : Portugest (African coast), Dutch (East *Middle East lasted around > 50 years Indies), British (India), France (Indochina) *most dramatic decolonization i.e. partition *semi-official trading companies (e.g. East of India led to many dead and refugees Indian Trading Company) *French & Dutch tried to hold on to*indigenous societies larger, more robust colonies after WWII, but they failed and more remote *fight for decolonization led by common *agenda and borders set by colonial societies powers *anti-colonialism in rural areas: the elites *ideological racist justification (whose power was threatened), and the peasants (implicitly resisted) *anti-colonialism in urban areas: alienated rural migrants, working class, civil servants, students, bourgeoisie *colonized were exposed to education, new ideas, other social groups and thus established national identity, technology, communication, urbanization, and the strengths and weaknesses of colonialism *different societal groups/classes put aside their differences to unite against the colonial power *transitions to independence through protests strikesriotswars *colonial powers moved out of their own accord at different degrees Africa *initial colonization of coast only *lasted 100 years
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