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POLI 243 MIDTERM REVIEW.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 243
Professor
Mark Brawley
Semester
Winter

Description
POLI 243 MIDTERM REVIEW TheoriesTheories can be categorized by paradigm or by levelofanalysis o Paradigm idealism realism liberalism Marxism institutionalism constructivism o Levelofanalysis system domesticstate bureaucratic or individual level Levels are in relation to where we locate the key actors Idealism Institutionalism and Constructivismo Classical IdealismHuman behavior can be perfectedHarmony of interests between people and states Therefore war is never an appropriate way to resolve disputes The point of harmony simply needs to be identified insteadCorrect laws and institutions can guide behavior revealing the harmony of interests this was the purpose of the League of Nations o Complex Interdependence KeohaneStates are not always the most important actorsStates are not rational unitary actors but are composed of many different groups bureaucracies individuals and firmsStates are under pressure to do much more than ensure survival of the country so they have many different goals power may not be the most importanto Rationalist InstitutionalismActors are selfinterested rational utility maximizers International regimes can facilitate the making of agreements by actorsActors are interested in the pursuit of goals which are not always zerosum in nature States want more than just relative powerthey want wealth and trade which is mutually beneficial to those involvedo Constructivism Interests and preferences are socially constructed and hence are flexible rather than enduringIdeas are important as forces shaping preferences identity etcRationality is always contextual Realism o Classical Realism ie Morgenthau Humans have a will to survive which makes them selfishThe will to survive equals a desire to dominate and control ones environmentThus human interaction creates a competition to dominate which in turn triggers a search for powero Structural Realism ie Waltz States are the most important but not the only actors States are unitary and rational actorsThe international system is anarchicStates seek to maximize power Waltz questions the utility of debating human nature good states can do bad things eg democracies fighting wars o Neorealism ie Mearsheimer States are the most important but not the only actorsStates are unitary and rational actorsThe international system is anarchicStates will seek to maximize their utilityth Liberalism originated as a criticism of mercantilism in the late 18 century as a result of the writings of Adam Smith and David Ricardoo All forms of liberalism contain the following assumptionsActions are purposiveActors have perfect informationActors know their preferences and can rank them Actors know all possible options and their consequencesActors calculate the costs and benefits of each optiono Classical LiberalismIndividuals are the primary actorsIndividuals are rational unitary actorsIndividuals maximize utility Everything can be tradedIndividuals indifference curves can be summed into societal indifference curveso Commercial LiberalismIndividuals are the primary actorsIndividuals are rational and unitary actorsIndividuals maximize their utilityEverything can be tradedTherefore trade is the route to cooperation and peaceo Republican LiberalismIndividuals are the primary actorsIndividuals are rational and unitary actorsIndividuals maximize their utilityNational selfdetermination where individuals can express their preferences is the route to international peace and understanding Where individuals have a say in national policy ie a democracy national policy will be peaceful and will pursue the creation of wealth
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