Doyle- Liberalism and World Politics

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 244
Jason Scott Ferrell

Doyle: Liberalism and World Politics Schumpter’s Liberal Pacifism  Schumpter o saw interaction of capitalism and democracy as the foundation of liberal pacifism – they’re forces for peace. A further development of these two means that imperialism will disappear. o Capitalism: produces unwarlike disposition, populace is “democratized, individualized, rationalized”.  Has developed means of preventing war: Hague Court, least feudal/most capitalist state – the US – has had no imperialist tendancies. o Imperialism: an objectless disposition on the part of a state to unlimited forcible expansion. Modern imperialism resulted from a combination of a “war machine”, warlike instincts and export monopolism o Liberal Pacifism: only war profiteers and military aristocrats gain from wars. No democracy would pursue a minority interest sand tolerate high costs of imperialism. o Discrepancy between warlike history of liberal states and Schumpter’s pacifistic expectations  1) “materialistic monism” leaves little room noneconomic objectives  2)Political life of states/individuals (domestic politics) seems to have been homogenized at the same time; citizens seek matierial welfare.  3) World politics are homogenized – all states evolve toward free trade and liberty together. Machiavelli’s Liberal Imperialism  Machiavelli o Republics are pacifist, they are instead the best form of state for imperial expansion  His republic is not a democracy, it’s characterised by social equality, popular liberty and political participation.  Consuls sere as kings, senate as aristocracy managing the state, people in the assembly as source of strength.  Liberty: results from “disunion” (necessity of compromise required by divison of powers among senate, consuls and tribunes). Results from popular veto.  Strength then imperial expansion results from the way liberty encourages increased population and property – this grows when citizens know they and their possessions are safe from seizure  *Expansion calls for a free republic  Necessity: in terms of political survival, calls for expansion. o We seek to rule or at least to avoid being repressed. We want more for ourselves and our states than just material welfare (aka materialistic monism).  Because states with similar aims threaten us, we prepare ourselves for expansion. Kant’s Liberal Internationalism  Modern liberalism has two legacies o 1) pacification of foreign relations among liberal states  predictions of liberal pacifists: liberal states exercise peaceful restraint, and a separate peace exists among them  separate peace allows foundation for US crucial alliances with liberal powers (eg. NATO, Japanese Alliance)  When states are fored to decide on which side of an impending world war they will fight
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