Doyle: Liberalism and World Politics
Schumpter’s Liberal Pacifism
o saw interaction of capitalism and democracy as the foundation of
liberal pacifism – they’re forces for peace. A further development
of these two means that imperialism will disappear.
o Capitalism: produces unwarlike disposition, populace is
“democratized, individualized, rationalized”.
Has developed means of preventing war: Hague Court, least
feudal/most capitalist state – the US – has had no
o Imperialism: an objectless disposition on the part of a state to
unlimited forcible expansion. Modern imperialism resulted from a
combination of a “war machine”, warlike instincts and export
o Liberal Pacifism: only war profiteers and military aristocrats gain
from wars. No democracy would pursue a minority interest sand
tolerate high costs of imperialism.
o Discrepancy between warlike history of liberal states and
Schumpter’s pacifistic expectations
1) “materialistic monism” leaves little room noneconomic
2)Political life of states/individuals (domestic politics)
seems to have been homogenized at the same time; citizens
seek matierial welfare.
3) World politics are homogenized – all states evolve
toward free trade and liberty together.
Machiavelli’s Liberal Imperialism
o Republics are pacifist, they are instead the best form of state for
His republic is not a democracy, it’s characterised by social
equality, popular liberty and political participation.
Consuls sere as kings, senate as aristocracy
managing the state, people in the assembly as source
Liberty: results from “disunion” (necessity of compromise
required by divison of powers among senate, consuls and
tribunes). Results from popular veto.
Strength then imperial expansion results from the
way liberty encourages increased population and
property – this grows when citizens know they and
their possessions are safe from seizure
*Expansion calls for a free republic
Necessity: in terms of political survival, calls for expansion. o We seek to rule or at least to avoid being repressed. We want more
for ourselves and our states than just material welfare (aka
Because states with similar aims threaten us, we prepare
ourselves for expansion.
Kant’s Liberal Internationalism
Modern liberalism has two legacies
o 1) pacification of foreign relations among liberal states
predictions of liberal pacifists: liberal states exercise
peaceful restraint, and a separate peace exists among them
separate peace allows foundation for US crucial
alliances with liberal powers (eg. NATO, Japanese
When states are fored to decide on which side of an
impending world war they will fight