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POLI 322 midterm prep answers.docx

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Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

POLI 322 – Prep Sheet (Midterm) October 10, 2012 SHORT ESSAYS 1. Cow Protection -associated with the mobilization of the Hindu community in India -also associated with an ongoing conflict between Hindus and Muslims -conflict which demonstrated ongoing hostility between Hindus (majority in India) and Muslims (largest minority) -involved Muslims killing cows for sacrifice (even though the animal of sacrifice didn’t have to be a cow) -cows are a sacred symbol in Hindu religion -seen as a horrible sin to kill a cow -according to Pandey, one popular motif in broadcast appeals for cow protection called the cow the symbol of the “universal mother”; thus, killing it would be matricide -widespread violence between Hindus and Muslims; many attacks on Muslim villages -participation in the cow protection movement was seen as a means for lower caste members to move up in status; thus, it was a movement which brought castes together -the violence which erupted between Muslims and Hindus can perhaps be seen as a premonition of the partition which would later take place largely as a result of religious conflict 2. Islamic Modernism -leaders came from aristocracy -professionals urged Muslim families to send their children to Western schools -Brass claims that Islamic modernists had supported the colonial state; this is partially correct -modernists offered alternate forms of Islam for modern life -later generation of modernists were at the forefront of the All Indian Muslim League -however, a range of modernists also pushed for an end to colonialism -no straightforward link between Islamic modernism and Muslim nationalism -don’t do this one… 3. Pakistan Movement -not simply a result of the ongoing and unresolved conflict between Hindus and Muslims -demand for Pakistan emerged relatively late; wasn’t clear whether people wanted an autonomous region or a separate country -although there was hostility between Hindus and Muslims, the state did support certain causes of the Muslim League -there was a diversity of demands and movements -early movements for a separate country had little support -when Jinnah took over the Muslim league, he did so with secularism in mind -it was by 1946 that the Muslim league had grown substantially and had committed to the demand for Pakistan (even though it still wasn’t clear if it would be its own country) -Muslim league was a means of mass organization -secession was seen as a way for to gain autonomy -most non-Muslim majority regions became part of India, and most Muslim majority regions became a part of Pakistan -religious identity was closely tied to state boundaries 4. Linguistic States -also associated with consolidation of Indian democracy -there was supposed to be at least one state for every big language group -Congress party made a commitment to reorganize states along language lines so that regional administration would fit local culture better -most language groups were territorially organized -conflict between language groups was limited; so groups didn’t come to the centre and fight battles -some battles happened within particular states, usually between language groups living in close proximity to each other -adoption of a plural language concept -at the national level, by 1965 the official language of the national government would shift from English to Hindi -there was resistance from southern India to this transition, so English was retained -a wide range of other languages were given the status of “national languages” -that meant that people could write exams to enter the bureaucracy in one of about 20 languages -then state level policies varied considerably -usually recognized anywhere from 1 to 3 languages as official languages -all this allowed for accommodation and decrease in the potential for conflict, thus helping to strengthen and consolidate democracy 5. Preferential Policies in India -associated with consolidation of Indian democracy -consolidated in education and government employment -quotas were introduced based on caste -set at approx. equal to the share of the population -constitution allowed preferences for middle castes; by 1990 national level set aside a quota for middle class -policies were meant to limit discontent among middle/lower castes -had a modest effect on redistribution; extensive reform was made possible 6. Pakistan's First Dictatorship -due to its last-minute formation, there was a lack of national identity -even when there was civilian rule, the elections were often not totally free elections (e.g. opponents didn’t run) -some believe that it was necessary to have authoritarian rule to establish some order in a disorganized and relatively undefined nation -the Muslim league was r
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