October 31, 2012 - Fischer, Calleo, Snyder, Imperial Expansion

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 351
Jason Scott Ferrell

October 31, 2012 Fischer, Calleo, Snyder Imperial Expansion  Germany embarked on war for expansion, focusing on Mittel Europa  How did internal political debates drive foreign policy? o Germany’s belligerent stance was not necessarily aimed at other nations o Hostile position to try and address domestic level instability o Two dimensions of this: to foster a sense of national identity that dilutes the pressures workers will bring in to bear on the elites, to foster a sense of common purpose – agrarian or industrial elites try to dilute competition amongst them. o Log rolling isn’t sustainable over a long period of time Fischer: war was an intentional act as a means of stability amongst the elites.  There was an elite few who could formulate policy without any form of oversight  Political institutions matter  War aims prove wars was an intentional calculation o Fischer highlights for us is that there are specifically political considerations that need to be accounted for relating back to the institutions of the state. Calleo tries to account for the timing economic development ties into the interests of the economic elite  late industrializers more likely to have a poli/economic system that lends itself to war  More than just the timing, have to look at the constituions of the economic interests withing the processes of industrialization o what is the exact composition of the economic interests of the elites during this process o Belligerent foreign policy begins under Bismarck o Intitially there’s a difference between the interests of the two groups (agrarian and industrialist) a: free trade, i: protection o Deep recession that drives these two groups together changing the calculations of the agrarian elite – agriarian interests are now in competition with agrarian producers from other nations. So they too now want protectionism. Both groups now start to push for formation of cartels and both groups begin to lobby government for counter siclical economic measures (establishment of quotas, tariffs, protectionism), wanta policy to dump products on other nations  Cartels: agreement among firms about production, prices and marketing. Ownership remains in the ahnds of different firms that set up institutions, cartels, that regulate competition amongst firms in Germany.  Allows them to regulate competition among themselves at the domestic level, allowing them to dominate the domestic level market o Proectionism: tariffs on imported goods making it less profitable for foreign produvers to sell their goods in Germany – give domestic level consumers an incentive to buy german produced goods  Artificially makes domestic
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