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Comprehensive Reading Notes.docx

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Political Science
POLI 369
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COLONIALISM AND NATIONALISMColonial Policy and Practice Comparative Study of Burma and Netherlands India FurnivallKey concept of plural societyDue to the British colonial policy of Divide and Rule and the similar policy used by the DutchDivisions usually for economic purposes along ethnicreligious linesEx British in Malaya kept the Malays in agriculture the Indians in rubber plantation and the Chinese in tin mining Objective prevent collective actionPrevent trust between different ethnic groups which reduces the likelihood of different segments in the society uniting together to topple colonial rule Link with assimilationElements of a plural societyLack of collective consciousness heritage and willInteraction limited in the marketplace due to Divide and RuleIt is a crowd not a communitySoutheast Asia and the Colonial Experience ElsonElson basically writes about the regions fluid and adaptive capabilitieshow colonialism has transformed itEuropean powers sought to control and monopolize trade that SE Asia offeredTrade with extraregional markets defined SE Asia life and politics until the 1800sEffects of colonialismTransformed the landscape of the areaLivelihood of SE Asians Diminished shared identities in the region 1Creation of a new state systemFrom traditional forms eg mandala concept to European models eg fixed territorial borders and state sovereignty Professional bureaucracy in state administrationCodification of traditional SE Asian law systemCivilizing mission toward the indigenous SE AsiansEconomic developmentSE Asian nations were expected to produce for their colonial masters but also to consume the products of the industrial world eg textileSocial implications of colonialismIncrease in SE Asian populationReduction in the value of people but an increase in the value of material goods contrast with mandala polityThe maturation of SE Asian nations gave rise to anticolonial nationalismYoung intellectuals understood that SE Asian nations were only useful to support Western powersHowever nationalist forces were initially nonthreatening due to division and disagreementsThe Japanese weakened Western powers in the pacific region during WWII therefore giving opportunities for nationalist movementsDISORDER AND THE COLLAPSE OF POSTWAR DEMOCRACYThe End of Empire and the Cold War BergerBerger focuses on the transformation of SE Asia that flowed from the rise of nationalism the crisis of colonialism decolonization the Cold War and the emergence of new nationstatesAnticolonial resistance expressed through nationalismNationstate as a symbol of freedom and selfdetermination2Dynamics of decolonizationNationalistic movements strengthened by the Japanese invasionPhilippines gained independence in 1946Indonesia declaring independence in 1945Burma gaining independence in 1948Mention of the Malayan UnionAfter 1945 British sought to institute local selfgovernment based on equal citizenship Malay elites rejected this proposition as the Malayan Union would severely weaken the ethnic Malays as most of them were planted in agriculture Policy of Divide and RuleCreation of UMNO 1946 in response which successfully bargained for the deletion of the Malayan UnionIndonesian independenceAnticolonial nationalism did not take hold until the early 1900sJapanese invasion gave Sukarno nationalistic opportunities as it weakened European colonialism Independence declared in 1945 Dutch withdrawal in 1949Fragmentation of French Indochina Focus on VietnamAnticolonial Vietnamese nationalism emerged in early 1900sJapanese invasion defeated French colonialists Following the defeat of Japan in the hands of the Allies the Viet Minh under Ho Chi Minh took advantage of both weakened French and Japanese to military pursue a road to independence French were determined to hold on French Indochina however this would lead to the French Indochina wars National liberation to authoritarian nationalism in IndonesiaSukarno after gaining independence rejected everything Dutch including their economic structure3
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