Poli 227 Midterm Review.doc

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
McGill University
Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 227
Professor
Page:
of 9
POLI 227 MIDTERM REVIEW
MODERNIZATION/DEVELOPME
NTAL
DEPENDENCY/UNDERDEVELOPM
ENTAL
Outline * Thinks that countries should
follow the path that West took
* Must adopt modern values,
political and economic institutions
* Education, urbanization and
media as agents of change
* Specialized and complex
institutions should be put in place
* Growth in communication,
transportation and economic
change is necessary
* Essentially, social and cultural
change
*Places blame more on colonies
themselves, not on colonizers.
Colonizers helped development
* Rejects modernization theory,
blames colonizers
* Believe colonialism & imperialism
are what destroyed NICs
* West controls finance & economy
* Economic dependence lead to
political dependence on the West
* Believes foreign countries should
invest but not make economic
decisions for LDCs
*Highlights international trade,
finance, investment, economic and
political relations
*Unequal exchange of goods
*1ST World’s control of technology
and multinational corporations
*International debt
*when colonizers leave a country,
countries are still economically
dependent on the colonizers.
*Terms of trade from colonizers will
deteriorate after colonizers leave
*dependent on resources
Criticis
m
* Early theory seemed to be
condescending of other cultures,
culturally biased
* Difficult to differentiate between
what traditional values should be
modernized
*Failed to recognize cultural,
political and economic differences
between countries
*Displays LDCs as helpless victims
*Blames all of third world problems
on external factors
* East India’s economic growth has
confounded theory
*Dependency is an approach not a
theory
*Failed to recognize cultural,
political and economic differences
between countries
Suppor
t
*Samuel Huntington
*evidence that reducing trade
barriers equals faster economic
growth
* Countries not open to foreign
investment are the most
impoverished
*countries that rely on primary
exports do poorly in economic and
social development
Focus *Modernization, social
mobilization, political
institutionalization
* Trade and finance, multinationals,
international debt, class
exploitation
Level *State and society *International system and class
of
Analysi
s
structure
Proble
m
*After decolonization, countries do
not often follow smooth progress
*Decolonization followed by
political disorder
*Social mobilization social
frustration political power
political instability disorder
* Dependency and Development
* Domestic class struggle
Samuel Huntington Amartya Sen
*principal conflicts will be cultural
*clash of civilizations dominate global
politics
*civilization highest form of cultural
grouping
*Western, Japanese, Confucian, Islamic,
Hinduism, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin
American, Africa (?)
*supports modernization theory
(believes countries should embrace
foreign change)
*countries that don’t want/can’t join the
West, compete with the West
*West threatened by nuclear weaponry
*West needs to accept that non-West
countries will modernize but not
Westernize, and that similarities and
acceptance are crucial
*does not take into account internal
conflicts and divisions within
civilizations and cultures i.e. Middle-
East is Islamic, yet divided
*criticized for his “stability fetish”
* You can’t generalize a civilization
because of the many aspects to people.
*the thesis of a civilization clash is
parasitic on the commanding power of a
unique categorization
*Samuel Huntington has a sharply
centered vision of hardened divisiveness
*Thesis is founded on the presumption
that the world is divided into distinct
civilizations
*the west is trying to redefine Islam
*by these classifications of people,
alienation is being enforced.
*Not bring the world any closer to a
global solution
*descriptive weakness of choice less
singularity has the effect of
impoverishing the power and reach of
our social and political reasoning
Colonialism Decolonization
Americas *first wave in 15th, 16th, 17th
century
*lasted around 300 years ago
*Spanish & Portuguese held weak
*colonial rule rigid and brutal
(natives exterminated or made
slaves)
*very small % retained native
culture/language
*distinction made between
colonial white elite, native whites,
mixed blood, Indians and black
slaves proved change of social
order
*economic order changed
(plantations)
*political control passes from
metropolis to local white elite
control
* Political power passed to local
white elite
*Hierarchy dominant and evident
*Influenced by American and
French Revolutions, Napoleonic
wars, US and British Policy i.e.
Monroe Doctrine
*Europeanized, white elite,
populations led struggle for
independence, nationals
movements rooted in changes in
local society
Asia *explored for trade, then conquest
*1st: Portugest (African coast),
Dutch (East Indies), British (India),
France (Indochina)
*semi-official trading companies
(e.g. East Indian Trading
Company)
*indigenous societies larger, more
robust and more remote
*agenda and borders set by
colonial powers
*ideological racist justification
*lasted India around 200 years
*Middle East lasted around > 50
years
*most dramatic decolonization i.e.
partition of India led to many dead
and refugees
*French & Dutch tried to hold on to
colonies after WWII, but they failed
*fight for decolonization led by
common societies
*anti-colonialism in rural areas: the
elites (whose power was
threatened), and the peasants
(implicitly resisted)
*anti-colonialism in urban areas:
alienated rural migrants, working
class, civil servants, students,
bourgeoisie
*colonized were exposed to
education, new ideas, other social
groups and thus established
national identity, technology,
communication, urbanization, and
the strengths and weaknesses of
colonialism
*different societal groups/classes
put aside their differences to unite
against the colonial power
*transitions to independence
through protests
strikesriotswars
*colonial powers moved out of their
own accord at different degrees
Africa *initial colonization of coast only
*16th-18th century: slave trade
*lasted 100 years
*decolonization occurred later with

Document Summary

Outline * thinks that countries should follow the path that west took. * must adopt modern values, political and economic institutions. * education, urbanization and media as agents of change. * specialized and complex institutions should be put in place. * growth in communication, transportation and economic change is necessary. *places blame more on colonies themselves, not on colonizers. * early theory seemed to be condescending of other cultures, culturally biased. * difficult to differentiate between what traditional values should be modernized. *evidence that reducing trade barriers equals faster economic growth. * believe colonialism & imperialism are what destroyed nics. * economic dependence lead to political dependence on the west. * believes foreign countries should invest but not make economic decisions for ldcs. *highlights international trade, finance, investment, economic and political relations. *1st world"s control of technology and multinational corporations. *when colonizers leave a country, countries are still economically dependent on the colonizers.