POLI 360 Study Guide - Final Guide: Wage War, Defence Diplomacy, Procrastination

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Part I: What is Security? National, International, and Global Security
National Security
What is national security? The protection of national territory, people, and assets from
external threat
o It can contribute to the security dilemma (nations try to secure themselves, which
threatens other nations, who in turn increase their arms, etc.)
o Argument: if a state is internally insecure, then that threatens internal securities
National state vs trading state
o National security state Garrison State North Korea, Pakistan,
These states view becoming secure as equivalent to protection, usually by
means of arms (military) investment
Usually excessive and states can overlook the people’s need bc money is
going to arms
Sometimes form due to failure of democracy
o Trading states
Pay more attention to their economic improvement than military
International Security
Readings: Barry Buzan, Is International Security Possible
Anarchy imposes three major conditions on concept of intl security:
o States are principle object of security (because they are sovereign)
o Security cannot depend on harmony or hegemony
o Dynamics of national security are relational and interdependent between states
5 Dimensions of Security
o Military, the interplay of the armed offensive and defensive capabilities of states,
and states’ perceptions of each other’s intentions
Security dilemma > arms race
o Political,
Stability of states, systems of government, ideologies that give them
legitimacy
o Economic,
Access to resources, finance and markets necessary to sustain acceptable
levels of state power and welfare
o Societal,
Sustainability of traditional patterns of language/culture/religious and
national identity and custom
o Environmental
Maintenance of climate and human enterprises that depend on it
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Conditions for Common Security (character of states)
o The political cohesion of states; whether or not states are weak or strong in term
of socio-political cohesion
o The nature of military policy; balance of foreign and domestic perceptions of
reasonable defense
o Transparency to observation states can view other states’ capabilities and
actions accurately
Global Security
Military Doctrines
Posen, The Sources of Military Doctrine
Military Doctrine
o A key component of Grand Strategy, as they effect quality of life in the
international political system and the security of states that hold them, due to the
anarchic nature of the intl system
The struggle of determining the motives and means of other actors must
operate in said system
o Doctrines can differ from political objectives from Grand Strategy, which is when
they can fail
Unsuccessful military doctrines
Three doctrines: defensive, offensive, deterrent, and what are the primary determinant
of which position a State will adopt?
o Four possible variables: technology, geography, organization theory, and
structural realism
Finds that tech and geo marginally influence the military doctrines, and organization
theory and structural realism are more likely to explain which doctrine a state chooses
o Because organizations seek to reduce uncertainty, and increase autonomy and
budgets, they will favor offensive doctrines
However, realpolitik considerations drive politicians’ perceptions of
optimal policy
As their environment changes, their preference for a defensive or
offensive strategy will too
Innovations in military doctrine can affect national security by either:
o Positively or detrimentally effecting integration of political and military
objectives
o Affect the likelihood of victory or defeat
Robert Art, To What Ends Military Power
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Five Uses of Force: compellence, swaggering, deterrent, offensive, defensive
o T.V. Paul: coercive diplomacy, preemptive and preventative
Defense: deployment of military power to ward off an attack, minimize damage to
oneself if attacked,
Loss of Strength Gradient Kenneth Boulding
The further away from home base you are, the weaker you become
o UK overcame this using divide and conquer
How did other militaries overcome the LSG?
o US uses air craft carriers to extend their reach, and has support systems and
bases around the world
o Use of technologies with long reach (Ballistic missiles can sometimes go ~10K
miles, stealth bombers)
Willingness to Suffer
Why Great Powers can lose asymmetric wars; how much a group is willing to withstand
loss and suffering during war
o Ideological; can often be driven by the thought that what they are fighting for is
right and just and therefore gives them a greater willingness to suffer than
someone fighting for material reasons
Usually, revolutionary and guerilla groups have the greatest willingness to suffer bc
they perceive themselves as fighting against oppressors
Strategy
Related Readings: Mearshiemer
Strategy: selecting goals and ways to achieve them with given constraints; the science/art
of employing the political/economic/psychological military sources of a nation to gain
the objectives of peace/war
o Tactics: the uses of forces in battle, natural defense
o Strategy: using forces/ability to gain goals
Grand Strategy
Grand Strategy: often look beyond war (look at how to obtain peace), and are subject to
change
o Modern view: war cannot be the only way of obtaining peace
Country can lose war, but claim victory/peace (Egypt in 1973)
Country can win war, but can claim a loss (US in Iraq)
Status Quo Bias
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