POLI 360 Final: Poli 360 Final Exam Prep

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4 Nov 2017
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Poli 360 IDs
Pre-Midterm IDs:
Security Problem
● The international system is anarchy
● Competition amongst states for security and status
● There is no central governing authority
● Which is why almost all states have their own armed forces
● Values need to be protected Military is a way of ensuring this
Security Dilemma
● When nations try to protect themselves through increasing their arms they make their
neighbor's insecure
● Which means they respond by also increasing their arms
● The outcome is that neither is secure in the objective sense and they must continue
building
● Examples: Cold War, India & Pakistan, US & China
● Discussed in multiple readings however Posen says it is the “means by which a state
tries to increase its security it decreases the security of others”
6 Dimensions of Security
Military
○ Related to the position and capabilities of weapons
○ Capabilities to prevent the threat and force of other states
Political
○ Variations in ideologies and stability in governance
Economic
○ Sustain the welfare of the country and its people ensure their access to
markets and trade
Societal
○ Maintaining national cultures, identities, and customs
Environmental
○ Is becoming increasingly important as different states are affected significantly by
global warming, sea levels rising etc.
Human
○ Securing people from war, hunger, physical threats and violence
Mainstream IR- 3 Dimensions
National
○ National Security State (Hogan)
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■ Importance of protecting national borders largely through military means
■ Countries sometimes ignore welfare etc. in an effort to prioritize their
military above all else
■ Examples: Russia, Pakistan, North Korea
○ Trading State (Rosecrance)
■ States that pursue predominantly economic goals without putting too
much emphasis on other goals
■ They tend to be liberal
■ Examples: Germany, Canada
○ Garrison State (Laswell)
■ Sociological phenomenon referring to those states that are led by
specialists of violence and emerge from social unrest
■ In these societies the military is above all else and those people in
uniform are the most respected people and have many advantages
■ These states prioritize their military capabilities above all else and are
engaging in prolonged conflicts, usually their neighbors
■ Examples: Pakistan, Brazil-Argentina-Chile (in the 1980s)
International
○ Mutually assured destruction protected both the US and Russia throughout the
Cold War (Security interdependence)
Global
○ Those interested in World Order accepting norms and avoiding military threats
to protect themselves (invested in chang going beyond normative, orderly
change)
Strategy (Freedman)
● The art of employing the political, economic, and psychological forces of a nation for
adopting peace or war
Including:
○ Resource management
Armies
Political
Economic
Tactics (Freedman)
● How military powers are used by governments in the pursuit of their interests
● The employment of battle as the means towards the attainment of the objective of war
Grand Strategy
Definition
○ The collection of military, political, and economic means and ends with which the
state attempts to achieve security
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○ Evolving today because in colonial periods military powers could impose peace,
today a country may achieve a military victory but not peace
○ Example: US in Iraq
Sources
○ Realist POV Everyone should maximize their security (System Driven)
○ Individual level POV Philosophical ideas of the elite
○ Domestic level Democracy versus Authoritarianism
● Discussed in the Baylis and Wirtz reading where they say the grand strategy involves the
coordination of all the resources of a nation, band of nations, towards the attainment of
the political objectives sought
○ There is no such thing as a purely military advice in strategy
● Discussed in the Freedman reading and discussed from the point of view of four
dimensions
Operation
Logistical
Social
Technological
Military Power Components
● From a realist POV military power is very important regarding overall status of the
state
● Art says deployment is meant to ward off an attack and minimize damage to one’s self if
attacked
Defensive Military Power
● States can deploy forces in place prior to an attack or use them to repel an attack but is
not the one to strike first
● To protect whatever you have
● Discussed by Freedman as pure defense being contrary to the idea of war, however in
reality defensive campaigns can be fought with offensive battles
Offensive Military Power
● First strike and maximized gains in war
● Uses offensive forces to advance during a war i.e. country that engages in offensive
action is more similar to a conquest
● To move forward
Deterrent Military Power
● Prevent an adversary from doing something you don’t want them to do by showing you
will retaliate and the punishment will be unacceptable for an opponent so they will not
start a war
Compellent Military Power
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