POLI 360- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 206 pages long!)

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McGill
POLI 360
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Poli 360- Lecture 1 9/7/2016 9:50:00 PM
Security, Strategy, Grand Strategy
The International System is anarchy
o Rules
o No Central Governing Authority
Competition amongst states
o For security
o For Status
o The idea is you need to help yourself
That is why ALMOST all states have their own armed forces!
o Exceptions:
Costa Rica
Vatican City
Values need to be protected Military is a way of ensuring this
o Values that people cherish can be attached by others who are
not in agreement with you
o Physical protection is a big concern
Variation
o Some countries are very picky
Ex: Very hard to enter and deal with US
Has larger goals than Canada as a global power
o Other are not
Some countries think conquest is needed Control Necessary while
other countries can be more passive Ex: Canada (Bangladesh has
more peacekeepers than Canada)
When nations try to secure through arming they make their
neighbors insecure which means they respond by also increasing
their arms = SECURITY DILEMMA
o Strength through weaponization?
o Spiraling arms race?
o Outcome is neither is secure in the objective sense, and must
continue building…
o Examples:
India vs. Pakistan
US vs. China
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Security Problem
Security Dilemma
In order to create a peaceful environment you need to think about these
problems…
Risks of Arms Race
Competition
Measures to Reduce this:
Economic Interdependence
o US and China are economically interdependent yet they are
still at odds with each other (arms race)
Democratic Neighbors tend to be less conflictual
Security Broadly Defined
If a state is able to withstand external force
6 Dimensions of Security
Military
o Related to the position and capabilities of weapons
o Capabilities to prevent the threat and force of other states
o Requires a certain threshold
o This can lead to a security dilemma
o Countries want stable states and governments
Political
o Variation in Ideologies
Economic
o Sustain the welfare of the country and people
o Access to finance, markets, and trade
Societal
o Maintaining national cultures, identities, and customs
Environmental
o Increasingly important
o Different states affected significantly by global warming, sea
levels rising, etc.
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