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Midterm 1 Notes.docx

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PSYC 180
Amir Raz

Midterm 1 Notes Chapter 1  The notoriety of Freud undermines the scientific nature of psychology and how it is perceived by the public  Psychology is diverse; there are many different fields o Not the only science to lack a unifying conceptualization  Psychology is an independent discipline because: o It studies the full range of human behavior with scientific techniques o Applications derived from this knowledge are scientifically based o Psychology is the data-based scientific study of human behavior  Often confused with pseudoscience  Often opposes “common sense”  The defining features of science are: o The use of systematic empiricism o The production of public knowledge o The examination of solvable problems  Psychological research is often avoided because people fear the answers, not because they do not think it is accurate Chapter 2  The falsifiability criterion states that, in order for a theory to be useful, the predictions drawn form it must be specific: if it does not rule out any possible observations, then the theory can never be changed.  The more events deemed impossible by a theory, the more impressive it is o Freudian theory can explain everything: it is not falsifiable.  The quality of confirming instances is just as important as the quantity of the confirmations.  Science seeks conceptual change, which makes it frequently incompatible with folk wisdom/common sense.  A new theory must explain all of the facts that the old theory did plus new facts that the old theory could not explain.  A solvable problem is synonymous with a testable theory. Chapter 3  Reliability refers to the consistency of a measuring instrument (whether you would arrive at the same measurement after multiple assessments)  Construct validity refers to whether a measuring instrument (operational definition) is measuring what is supposed to be measured. Chapter 4  A case study is an investigation that looks intensely and in detail at a single individual or very small number of individuals.  A testimonial is similar in that it is an isolated event, but there are testimonials to support everything subject to the placebo effect  The placebo effect involves the tendency of people to report that a medication/procedure has helped them, regardless of whether it has or not.  The vividness effect is when people are faced with a problem-solving or decision- making situation, the retrieve from memory the information that seems relevant to the situation
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