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Midterm

Midterm 1 Chapter Notes.pdf

59 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama

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Description
• Smelling a flower with right nostril (right hemisphere) lets you associate the smell to the object and can pick it up with left hand, but right hand and verbal will say you smelled nothing • We become conscious of something only if information about it is able to reach the parts of the brain responsible for verbal communication, which are located in the left hemisphere. If the information does not reach these parts of the brain, then that information does not reach consciousness Unilateral Neglect: • Unilateral neglect is produced by damage to a particular part of the right side of the brain: the cortex of the parietal lobe resulting in failure to notice things located to a person’s left • Parietal lobe receives information directly from the skin, the muscles, the joints, the internal organs, and the part of the inner ear that is concerned with balance; it is concerned with the body and its position • The parietal cortex also receives auditory and visual information. It’s most important function is to put together information about the movements and location of the parts of the body with eh locations of objects in space around us • Individuals with unilateral neglect are neither half blind nor half numb. Under the proper circumstances, they can see things located to their left, and they can tell when someone touches the left side of their bodies Their typical inattention to things to the left means that they normally do not become conscious of • them • Individuals can tell that theres a stimulus to the left side but cannot report the left side stimulus but when told to compare the two (one left and one right), they say it is the same • Individuals with unilateral neglect only visual half right of the visual field even when they know the complete visual field • Unilateral neglect on the right side caused by damage to left parietal lobe is very slight, difficult to detect, and usually only temporary • The rubber hand illusion: if a subject’s hidden left hand and the visible rubber hand are stroked synchronously in the same direction, the subject will come to experience the artificial hand as his or her own. If the hands are stroked asynchronously or in different directions, this illusion will not occur • MRI scans showed premotor cortex, a region of the brain involved in planning movements to be active when subjects thought the rubber hand was their own • Anterior cingulate cortex, involved in anticipation of pain, was active when subjects thought the rubber hand (as their own hand) was about to be stabbed by needle The Nature of Physiological Psychology: • The ultimate function of the nervous system is behaviour • The basic function of perception is to inform us what is happening in our environment so that our behaviours will be adaptive and useful: Perception without the ability to act would be useless • The ability to think evolved because it permits us to perform complex behaviours that accomplish useful goals Scientific explanation takes two forms: generalization and reduction • • The task of the physiological psychologist is to explain behaviour by studying the physiological processes that control it. They must understand “psychologically” why a particular behaviour occurs before we can understand what physiological events made it occur • Sometimes, physiological mechanisms can tell us something about psychological processes. This relationship is particularly true of complex phenomena such as language, memory, and mood, which are poorly understood psychologically Biological Roots of Physiological Psychology:
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