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Chapter 3

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PSYC 211
Jelena Ristic

PSYC 211Structure of the nervous systemChapter 3 Directions in the nervous system are Normally described relative to Denoting Directionstheir neuraxisAn imaginary line drawn through the spinal cordup to the front part of the NeuroaxisbrainWith respect to the central nervous systemlocated near or toward the headAnteriorWith respect to the central nervous system located near or toward the tailPosteriorRostralToward the beakwith respect to the central nervous systemin a direction along the neuroaxis towards the front of the faceWith respect to the central nervous systemin a direction along the neuroaxis Caudalaway from the front of the faceTowards the backwith respect to the CNSin a direction perpendicular to the Dorsalneuroaxis towards the top of the head or the backTowards the bellywith respect to the CNSin a direction perpendicular to the Ventralneuroaxis toward the bottom of the skull or the front surface of the bodyTowards the side of the bodyaway from the middleLateralTowards the middle of the bodyaway from the sidesMedialIn referring to the brain it meansAboveSuperiorInferiorIn referring to the brain it meansBelowExample Superior Colliculi are located above the inferior colliculiIpsilateralRefers to the structure of the same sides of the body Refers to the structure of opposite sides of the bodyContralateralPSYC 211Structure of the nervous systemChapter 3We Can slice the nervous system in three waysCross section also known as frontal section when referring to the brain With respect to the CNS a slice taken at right angles to the neuroaxisA slice through the brain paralleled to the foreheadhorizontal sectionParallel to the ground giving us the Sagittal sectionPerpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuroaxisThe midsagittal plane divides the brain into two symmetrical halvesBrain is the most protected organ of the bodyencased in a toughbony skull and floating in a pool of cerebrospinal fluidCSFThe brain receives a copious supply of blood and is chemically guarded by the bloodbrain barrierIt receives 20 of the blood fluid from the heartA consistent blood supply is essentialA 1 second interruption of blood flow to the Notebrain uses up much of the dissolved oxygen6 seconds interruption of blood flow produces unconsciousnessMeningesProtective sheaths around the brain and the spinal cord are referred to as meninges The Outermost layer of meningestough and flexibleDura materThe middle layer located between the Pia and the dura materArachnoid materPia materThin and delicate layer that is closest to spinal cord and blood vessels of the brain Pia mater and the Arachnoid membrane there is a gap called Subarachnoid Between the that is field with CSFmembrane
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