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PSYC 211 - Chapter 7-1.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 211

Chapter 7 Audition and the Body SensesCase 9 year old Sara if I was 9 I would not have understood half of what the dad was talking about1Pain is good because it allows us to know if were being injured in some way2If you couldnt feel pain you would keep your hand on a hot stove and it would melt3Some people who cant feel pain have died from a ruptured appendix because they didnt even know that happened because they didnt feel pain 4Vision very important compared to other senses for our speciesa lot of research has been done on it Audition 5For most people 2nd most important sense6Conversation7Provides info about things hidden from view like in the dark The Stimulus 8Sounds are produced by objects that vibrate and set molecules of air into motion 9Objects vibrates its movements cause molecules of air surrounding it to condense and rarefy making sound waves that travel away from the object 700 miles per hour Changes in air pressure10If vibration ranges between 20 and 20000 cycles per second frequency these waves stimulate receptors cells in our ears perceived as sounds11Vision hue brightness saturation12Audition pitch loudness timbre 13Loudness intensity Amplitude Degree to which the condensations and rarefactions of air differ from each other More vigorous vibrations of an object produce more intense sound waves that are louder14Timbre provides info of the nature of the sound like sound of clarinet or train whistle15Most natural acoustic stimuli are complex waves16Eyesynthetic organ putting together when we see a colour we dont see it as the red light and the green light we just see yellow17Earanalytic when 2 different frequencies of sound are mixed we dont perceive an intermediate tone but we hear both original tonesAnatomy of the Ear 18Pinna external ear what we see as the ear on people19Pinna tympanic membrane vibrates eardrum middle ear ossicles set into vibration malleus incus stapes cochlea with receptors20Stapes presses against the membrane behind the oval window 21Cochlea in inner ear and filled with fluid 999 of the energy of airborne sound would be reflected away if the air went directly against the oval window of the cochlea22Ossicles energy transmissionstapes makes smaller but more forceful vibrations agaisnt the oval window than the tympanic membrane makes against the malleus23Cochlea snail Consists of 2 and 3 quarter turns of a gradually tapering cyclinder 35mm long24Cochlea divided longitudinally into 3 sections1Scala vestibuli1Scala media1Scala tympaniOrgan of Corti consists of basilar membrane hair cells and tectorial membrane Deiterss cella supporting cell found in the organ of Corti which sustains the auditory hair cells to the basilar membraneCilia of hair cells pass through the reticular membrane and the ends of some of them attach to the tectorial membane which is overhead like a rigid shelfSound waves cause the basilar membrane to move relative to the tectorial membrane which bends the cilia produces receptor potentialsBekesy vibration energy exerted on oval window causes the basilar membrane to bend the portion that bends the most is determined by the frequency of the sound highfrequency sounds cause the end neaest the oval window to bend base Lowfrequency toward the apexIf cochlea were a closed system no vibration would be transmitted through the oval window because liquids are incompressible Round windowopening in the bone surrounding the cochlea of the inner ear the permits vibations to be transmitted via the oval window into the fluid of the cochlea Vibrations cause part of the basilar membrane to flex back and forthpressure changes in the fluid underneath the basilar membrane are trannsmitted to the membrane of the round window moves out and in in opposite way to the movements of the oval windowWhen the baseplate of the stapes pushes in the membrane behind the round window bulges out Some people suffer from middle ear diesase that causes the bone to grow over the round window basilar membrane cant easily flex back and forth so people have severe hearing lossTheir hearing can be resotred by fenestration window makingtiny hole drilled in the bone where round window should be Auditory Hair Cells and the Transduction of Auditory Information Both inner and outer hair cells on basilar membraneHair cells contain cilia fine hairlike appendages arranged in rows according to height Human cochlea has 3500 inner hair cells and 12000 outer hair cells Hair cells form synapses with dendrites of bipolar neurons whose axons bring auditory info to the brain Sound waves cause both the basilar membrane and tectorial membrane to flex up and downmovements bend cilia in a direction Tips of cilia of the outer hair cells are attached directly to the tectorial membrane
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