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PSYC 211 - Chapter 4-1.docx

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PSYC 211
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Chapter 4 PsychopharmacologyStory man with botulism1Visited a man with botulism2The man homecanned asparagus that smelt funny Took a spoon and put it in the can then touched it to his tongue tasted terrible washed his tongue right away without swallowing it3Began seeing double felt muscle weakness difficult to breathe4Pretreated some mice with botulism antitoxin and all mice were given some of the mans blood the pretreated mice survived That tiny little drop on his tongue that he didnt even swallow was enough to kill mice 5Psychopharmacologythe study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and on behaviourWhat is a drug1Medication from a pharmacist Chemical with therapeutic effect on disease or symptoms 1Chemical people are likely to abuse like heroin or cocaine1An exogenous chemical not necessary for normal cellular functioning that significantly alters the functions of certain cells of the body when taken in relatively low dosesPsychopharmacology specifies were looking at ones that alter nervous system functions Exogenousproduced from outside the body so not like neurotransmitters or hormonesChemical messengers produced in the body are not drugs but there are synthetic chemicals that do the same thing that are drugsRules out proteins fats carbs minerals and vitamins that are necessary for healthy dietLow doses because large quantities of almost everything will alter cell functions Drug effectchanges a druge produces in an animals physiological processes and behaviour Ex effect of morphine have decreased sensitivity to pain slowing of digestive system sedationSites of actionpoints of which molecules of drugs interact with nmolecules located on cells of the body which effects some biochemical processes of the cell Ex sites of action of some opiates are specialized receptors situated in te membrane of certain neurons When attached to the receptors they alter the activity of the neuronsPrinciples of Psychopharmacology Will describe routes of administration of drugs and their fate in the bodySites of drug actoinsSpecific neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and physiological and behavioural effectsPharmacokinetics To be effective drug must reach sites of action which means the drug must enter the body and enter the bloodstream so they can be carried to the organs they act on they must then leave bloodstream and come into contact with the molecules that they interact with Molecules of the drug must enter the CNS the ones were interested in drugs cross several barriers to enter the body and reach sites of actionOnce drugs enter the body they are metabolized broken down by enzymes or excreted in the urineOver time drugs either disappear or are transformed into inactive fragmentsPharmacokineticsthe process by which drugs are absorbed distributed within the body metabolized and excreted Routes of Administration For lab animals most common route is injection drug is dissolvved in a liquid and injected by a hypodermic needle Intravenous IV injectioninjection into a vein Fastest route Drug enters bloodstream directly and reaches the brain in a few secs Disadvantages entire dose reaches bloodstream at once and if an animal is really sensitive Require more skill Intraperitoneal IP injectionfast but not as fast as IV Injected through abdominal wall into the peritoneal cavity space that surrounds stomach intestines liverIntramuscular IM injectioninjection of a substance directly into a large muscle like in upper arm thigh bumThe drug is absorbed into the bloodstream through the capillaries that supply the muslce If you want slow absorption you can mix it with another drug that constricts blood vessels and slows the flow of blood through the musleSubcutaneous SC injectiondrug injected into the space beneath the skin Only works for injecting small amounts because large amounts hurtSome lipidsoluble drugs are dissolved in vefetable oil first and then given SC injection then molcecules of the drug slowly leave the oil over several days For even slower absorptionL drug can be in pellet form or placed in siicone rubber capsule and implanted beneath the skinOral administrationadministration of the substance into the mouth so that its swallowed Most common form for humansDifficult to get lab animals to eat something that tastes bad so not usually used with them
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