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Midterm

PSYC 211 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Phantom Limb, Somatotopic Arrangement, Parietal Lobe


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Study Guide
Midterm

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The&relationship&between&the&cortical&stimulation&and&the&body&part&sensation&produced&a&
somatotopic&map&of&the&body&surface&&
The&somatotopic&map&is&also&referred&to&as&the&somatosensory&homunculus&(“little&man”)&&
&
Somatosensory&Agnosia:&&
Patients&with&tactile&agnosia&cannot&identify&objects&by&touch&&
Patient&E.C.&has&left&parietal&lobe&damage.&She&cannot&recognize&common&objects:&&
o Pine&cone&–&brush&&
o Ribbon&]&rubber&band&&
o Snail&shell&–&bottle&cap&&
Patient&M.T.&can&draw&objects&when&touched&but&he&cannot&recognize&them&&
Tactile&Apraxia:&refers&to&a&difficulty&exploring&objects&with&the&fingers&
&
Perception&of&pain:&&
Pain:&
An&unpleasant&sensory&and&emotional&experience&associated&with&tissue&damage&or&described&in&
terms&of&tissue&damage&&
Pain&is&whatever&the&experiencing&person&says&it&is;&existing&whenever&he&or&she&says&it&does&&
Pain&is&a&category&of&complex&experiences,&not&a&single&sensation&produced&by&a&single&stimulus&&
Pain&can&be&modified&by&opiates,&hypnosis,&placebo’s,&acupuncture,&etc.&&
Pain&is&vital&for&survival&in&humans&and&animals&
&
Brain&mechanisms&of&pain:&&
The&unpleasantness&component&refers&to&the&degree&to&which&the&individual&is&bothered&by&the&
pain.&Mediated&by&pathways&leading&to&the&anterior&cingulate&and&insular&cortex&&
Sensory&component:&concerned&with&pure&perception&of&the&intensity&of&a&painful&stimulus.&
Mediated&by&a&pathway&from&spinal&cord&to&the&somato]sensory&cortices&via&the&ventral&posterior&
thalamic&nucleus&&
The&component&of&long]term&implications:&represents&one’s&future&comfort&and&well&being.&
Mediated&by&pathways&that&reach&the&prefrontal&cortex&&
&
Evidence&for&Brain&Mechanisms&of&Pain:&&
Subjects&placed&their&hands&in&ice&cold&water&to&produce&a&pain&sensation&&
Subjects&with&hypnosis&reported&less&unpleasant&pain&even&though&the&pain&was&still&intense&&
Brain&activations&were&observed&in&a&PET&scanner&&
Painful&stimuli&increased&activation&in&both&anterior&cingulate&cortex&and&primary&somatosensory&
cortex&&
When&hypnotized,&anterior&cingulate&activity&“decreased”&and&activity&of&somatosensory&cortex&
remained&“high”&&
Somatosensory&cortex&involved&in&pain&perception.&Anterior&cingulate&is&involved&in&immediate&
emotional&effect&&
&
Phantom&Limb:&&
Phantom&limb&Is&a&form&of&pain&sensation&that&occurs&after&a&limb&has&been&amputated&&
Amputees&report&that&the&missing&limb&still&exists&and&that&it&often&hurts&&
It&is&though&that&phantom&limb&sensation&is&due&to&the&cut&axons&belonging&to&the&amputated&
limb.&These&cut&ends&cannot&be&re]established&and&form&nodules&called&neuromas&&
An&alternative&explanation&is&that&the&problem&is&inherent&in&the&organization&of&the&parietal&lobe.&
The&parietal&lobe&is&involved&in&the&awareness&of&one’s&own&body.&People&with&damage&to&the&
parietal&lobe&have&been&known&to&push&their&leg&out&of&bed&because&they&think&it&belongs&to&
someone&else&&
&
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