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Exam Review Lecture.doc

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PSYC 212
Remy Allard

Exam Review LectureSeptember 21 201140 MC for 60 minsChapter 1Principles of Perceptual MeasurementHow we measure perceptioncycleoStimuliwhat we are exposed to on the outsideoPhysiological processeshow our brain receives the signaloExperiencewhat the brain tells us what happensPsychophyicshow stimuli can be turned into a perception for usSensation and perception are not the same thingSensationphysical feeling we get from the stimuliPerceptionthe psychological feeling were getting from it3 common functionsolinearoexponentialologarithmicono zero cause we cannot measure at very low thresholdsthresholdsoabsolute thresholdbare minimum amount of stimulus intensity needed in order to register a sensationnot a well defined point because we have a continuum of sensationwe feel it 50 of the time miss it 50 of the timeosubthresholdstimuli intensities that do not produce detectable sensationosuprathresholdstimuli intensities that do produce a detectable sensationodifference thresholdthe smallest change in stimulus intensity that is needed to create a noticeable change in sensationmethods of psychophysical measurementomethod of adjustmentmanual change of stimulus intensitypeople tune the stimulus until they can barely notice itie light the participant turns the dialnot reliablevery subjective to how the person operatesomethod of limitsincreasingdecreasing set of stimuli intensitiesgoing from high to low and seeing if they detect the stimulusbias because they know if its getting higher or lowerthey may not give true responsethey may not hear it and say yesomethod of constant stimulirandom presentation of stimuli intensitiesrandom stimuli that are then graphed on a plot to see what happensWebers LawoWanted to know how much a stimulus intensity needed to change in order for us to perceive a difference in sensation difference thresholdoJUST NOTICEABLE DIFERENCE JNDperceptual feeling of just noticing a change in stimulus intensitythe physical amount of stimulus intensity change needed for this difference is the difference threshold DIoNotice that difference thresholds do not stay constant when we change the intensity of the reference stimulioChange in difference threshold increases linearly with stimulus intensityoJNDthe stimulus intensity that causes difference for us to feel it Difference Thresholdthe actual change that is needed in stimulus intensityFechners LawoWanted to determine the relationship between sensory magnitude and stimulus intensityoEqual change sin sensationwhenever we feel JND its the same change across any intensity leveloTo have a sensation that is constant but the intensity is changing must be a logarithmic functionoLower intensities can change sensation magnitude easily and vise versaStevens Power LawoBelieved we could directly measure sensation by directly asking subjectsoUsed scaling procedures with magnitude estimation asking them to rate somethingoVery subjective towards the participantoHumans really good at rating stimuluswas consistentoWas an exponential equationboSkIoSmaller exponentnegatively accelerating curveat higher intensity levels need exponentially greater increases in stimuli to perceive changes in sensation magnitudeoSensory transducer theorypower law reflects the function of our senses at their lowest levelDiscrimination scalingusing difference thresholds to estimate sensory magnitude assume JND leads to constant DS regardless of operating levelRatio scalingEkmans lawoDSkSoanalogous to Webers Law the sensory counterpartoif the fundamentals of Ekmans and Webers laws are applied to Fechners Law we get Stevens Power LawSignal Detection TheoryoExplains variability in our responses to stimulioConcept of noise internal and external activity that can impede a subjects detection of stimulioFor us to detect the noise the signal must be greater than the noiseoSignal and noise are always on the right side cause theres always a greater magnitude there
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