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PSYC 213- Midterm 1 combined notes.docx

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PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

PSYC 213 PSYC 213- Cognition Combined class and textbook notes Chapters 1-6 Chapter 1- Introduction: What is cognition?  Action or faculty of knowing o Study of processes  become acquainted with things o Dynamic o Seen as a faculty (divide the mind into faculties that represent the different mental activities)  Low level and high level processes o Low level:  Concerned with the environment  Comes in through our senses  Stimulus driven o High level:  Decision making, thinking  Executive processes Information processing theory:  Take in and act on information  (Shannon, Shannon & Weaver) o Proposed that all forms of communication could be broken down into 3 events  Sender  encodes message, puts into appropriate signals  Communication  Receiver  decodes information to get message Information theory:  Amount of information provided by a message is proportional to the probability of the message occurring (less probable messages are more informative).  Less likely the signal, the more information it conveys (inverse relationship between probability of occurrence and information conveyed = information theory)  Amount of information provided can be quantified in terms of „bits‟ 1 PSYC 213 Early tests on information theory:  Conclusion: time it takes a person to react to one stimulus is determined by the entire complex of situations, in which this particular signal is just one  Merkel: o People respond more slowly to less likely (more informative) signals o As number of alternatives increases, so does the response time  Hick: o Confirmed Merkel‟s results o Small amount of possibilities = small amount of uncertainty = small information produced by a stimulus o When the ensemble of possible signals increases= increase in uncertainty= increase in amount of information produced by the stimulus o Response time is „intimately concerned‟ with the information conveyed by a particular stimulus  Corssman  Hyman o Modified probability by other ways besides increasing possibilities o Increasing number of equally probable alternatives increased response time confirming the observation by Hick and Merkel o Made some signals more frequent  response time to frequent signals was reduced and response time for infrequent signals was longer o Sequential dependencies into presentation of signals while keeping overall probability the same  response time once again became faster as a signals probability increased  People take longer to react to an improbable stimulus (conveys more information) than a probable one (conveys less information) o Regardless of how signal is produced  Alternating # of equally probable alternatives  Changing the frequency  Introducing sequential dependences Information-Processing Limitations:  Amount of visual information which can be transmitted at once has limitations  Capacity limitation in addition to time limitation  Experiment: Webster and Thompson o More possible words (combination of 3) than call signals o Less information conveyed by call signal than word message (more probable) 2 PSYC 213 o Result: control tower operators could identify both call signals arriving (can respond and do something else), but only one of the word messages o Suggests nervous system is of limited capacity in the information processing sense  Broadbent: limit is one of information, not stimulation  Cherry, Egan, Catterette, Thwing: o Overloading of a person‟s information-processing capacity is dealt by selecting only some of the available information (try to pick information that shares some similar characteristics) o Humans are active selectors of information from the environment Models of information processing:  Broadbent‟s filter model: o Based on the idea that information-processing is restricted by channel capacity o Whole nervous system is one large channel which has a limit to the rate it can transmit stimulus information o Senses  short term memory store (sensory buffer)  filter  limited capacity channel (selected input for attention)  when more than one signal/message occurs at a time, entered in parallel to the sensory buffer, which extracts simple stimulus characteristics  filter selects messages which share some basic physical characteristics (passes along only some information)  passed along to limited- capacity system which is responsible for „higher order‟ stimulus attributes  Other information held in sensory buffer decays over time o Experiment:  Required to listen to three pairs of digits, one member of each pair arrived at one ear at the same times that the other arrived at the other ear  When asked to recall digits, could do more easily if they recalled the digits which entered just one ear (741-325) then when asked to recall in the sequence they were presented (73-42-15)  Switching attention between ears (locations) requires time which allows to decay in the sensory buffer  Waugh and Norman‟s model of information processing : o Primary memory  Immediate present memory. Quickly forgotten if not rehearsed secondary/ long term memory o Waugh and Norman proved with experimental evidence  Brown-Peterson task  Given set of items and a number  Immediately begin counting back by 3‟s from the number, then asked at a certain point to recall the items 3 PSYC 213  Prevents rehearsal of items, interferes with continuous presence in primary memory  Ability to recall items declines as the number of interfering items increased Ecological Validity:  Gibson argued that stimulus used in information processing experiments weren‟t good because weren‟t relative to the real world  Meaning of events and objects affordances = potential uses of stimuli in the real world  Information pickup  perceive information directly. Information available through the stimulus itself as opposed to the processing required to make the stimulus meaningful  Neisser proposed cyclical model of cognition: perceptual cycle o Perceiver produces schema (expectations of what we are likely to find in the world)  directs exploration of the environment  encounters expected and unexpected information  modifies schema o Constructed over times through our interactions with the environment  Cognitive ethology provides concrete and specific suggestions on how to carry out experiments in the real world Metacognition:  Knowledge people have about the way cognitive processes work  Study of cognitive psychology is a process of developing our metacognition Only from class: Historical perspectives:  How did we get to this definition of cognition?  Dialectics: progression of scientific knowledge. Form of how thinking changes over time.  The art or practice of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments. o State thesis (certain fact) o Develop an anti-thesis (trying to contradict) o Resolve them in a synthesis new thesis o This process never really ends! It’s a cycle  Dialectics: rationalism vs. empiricism o Plato vs. Aristotle/Descrates vs. Locke  Kant believed both are important and synthesized the two o Rationalists believe knowledge comes from reason.  Truth about the world lies within ourselves 4 PSYC 213  Can understand everything about the world just by thinking about it  Influence on theory development o Empiricism believes knowledge comes from experience and experimentation.  You get knowledge about the world by observing  Truth about the world lies within the world itself  Influence on the development of experimental method  Structuralism vs. functionalism o Structuralism (Wundt): understand the configuration of the elements of the mind by studying the components of percepts.  Introspection used as a primary method  think about color, shape ect.. can understand whole by components o Functionalism (James): Psychologists should focus on processes to understand the mind.  Used anything available usefulness of knowledge was a driving force  Led to pragmatism o Synthesis: Associationism  Look at how bits and pieces are related together, specifically to result in learning  How mental processes are associated with one another  Ebbinghaus: studied memory  how we form associations between events which result in learning  Edward Thorndike: The key to making associations is “satisfaction” or a reward.  Law of Effect: A stimulus will produce a response if organism is rewarded. Precursor to behaviouralism  behaviour occurs if organism is rewarded  Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Psychology: o Behaviorism (Watson, Skinner): The focus of psychology should be the study between the stimulus and the response  How behavior arises given a certain stimulus. o Shift from human to animal research.  since the mind did nothing o Classical conditioning:  Associate an irrelevant stimulus with a physiological relevant stimulus (ex: bell  salivation in dog)  Positive reinforcement: getting a reward for doing something good  Negative reinforcement: removal of an aversive stimulus for doing something good 5 PSYC 213  Positive punishment: getting a punishment for doing something bad  Negative punishment: getting a privilege removed for doing something bad o Watson- Baby Albert Experiments:  Demonstrates fear conditioning and generalization in humans  Can we produce a similar response in humans? (as dogs, in conditioning with bell)  Baby wasn’t actually healthy  was that a problem? o Skinner  All human behavior can be modified by stimulus-reaction relationships.  No free will  all behavior is a result of stimuli  Brain is a passive organ  Behaviour is contingent on the schedule of rewards and punishments.  Schedule of reinforcement on random intervals o Challenges to Behaviorism:  Bandura: cannot explain vicarious learning. Learning also results from rewards and punishments modeled by others. Bobo doll experiments – child modelled aggressive behaviour  Gestalt Psychology: Experience of percepts. Demonstrated things are a result of the interpretation of the stimulus. Whole can be larger than the sum of its parts  Karl Lashely: Brain is dynamic and active organ  Skinner response: Language is S-R  Chomsky: Language, even though there is input, is creative. Children produce sentences without rewards/punishments. Rather than passive process  Technological advancements: Mind as a computer metaphor o Cognitive revolution late 1960’s  emergence of classical cognitive psychology  Accepts existence of internal mental states  Accepts scientific method of inquiry  Mental processes that underlie behaviour  New Approaches  Cognitive Neuroscience  Cognitive Ethology  Modeling behavior as a dynamic system  Modeling behavior based on brain function 6 PSYC 213 Chapter 2-Cognitive Neuroscience:  Cognitive neuroscience= merging of cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Interdisciplinary field o Goal: to discover the brain mechanisms that give rise to human mental functions (language, memory, attention) o The mind is composed of different parts, or modules  try to relate mind (cognitive processes) and brain (at molecular and structural level)  Get conclusions supported by multiple views  A way of replicating results and making additional conclusions  Fuelled by the rise of neuroimaging techniques allowed for imaging live human brains in action  Key principles: o Cognitions arise from the brain o Based on interdisciplinary or convergent methodologies The brain as the organ of the mind:  Mind-body dialectics  how do mind and body interact?  Gall and Spurzheim promoted phrenology (study of the shape, size and protrusions of the cranium in an attempt to discover the relation of parts of the brain to various mental activities and abilities) o The brain is the sole organ of the mind o Basic character and intellectual traits are innately determined o Must exist differentially developed areas in the brain, responsible for these differences.  Believed the more developed a function, the larger it would be  Not everyone has a strong localization of function position (strict one-to-one correspondence between specific cognitive functions and specific parts of the brain)  Franz: o Expert in technique of ablation (destroy parts of the cortex and observe) o Concluded: mental processes are not due to the independent activities of individual parts of the brain, but to the activities of the brain as a whole o Studied the effects of ablation in the frontal lobes of a rat  Conclusion: as long as sufficient tissue remains, the location of the tissue does not matter  Lashley later published research where he made lesions in the cortex of rats to different places and to different degrees 7 PSYC 213  Law of mass action: learning and memory depend on the total mass of brain tissue instead of the property of individual cells  Law of equipotentiality: Even though some areas of the cortex may become specialized for certain tasks, within limits any part of an area can do the job of any other part of that area The relation between mind and brain:  Integration between many disciplines  Consciousness: what we are aware of at any point in time  Mind: broader; includes consciousness, but also includes things that occur outside our awareness  Attempts to form a mind/brain relation: o Interactionism:  Mind and brain are separate substances that interact with and influence each other  Descartes  thought the point where this interaction happened was the pineal gland o Epiphenomenalism:  „Mind‟ is a superfluous by-product of bodily functioning, can‟t determine behavior  Cannot discover much about the brain by examining what goes on in the mind  Consciousness is a by-product  irrelevant to understanding behavior  Mental states are caused by physical states but do not influence them  Sperry dissociated the hemispheres in animals  split brain  consciousness is an emergent property  o Parallelism:  „Mind‟ and brain are two aspects of the same reality and flow in parallel  For all events in the mind there will be corresponding events in the brain  Fechner  One-to-one correspondence  Supports use of introspection o Isomorphism:  Cognitions and the brain share the same pattern rather that point to point correspondence 8 PSYC 213  Rather than just seeing whatever I’m seeing and having that exact representation, it will change in my mind  Allows for changes in the brain  Mental events and natural events share the same structure  Gestalt (configuration) psychologists: Kohler  the whole is greater than its parts  Consciousness does not consist simply of one event after another, but is organized into a coherent whole  Hypothesis: psychological facts and the underlying events in the brain resemble each other in all structural characteristics  Ex: looking at a Necker cube  When the cube switches from one organization (which face is in the foreground) to another there must be a corresponding change in the structure of the underlying brain process o The cortical representation of the figure becomes fatigued and another part of the cortex begins to represent this figure o As the cortical representation changes, so does ones perception of it Methods in cognitive neuroscience: Animal models:  Permits the use of invasive procedures  Can‟t do brain lesions and single cell or multiple unit recordings on humans  Lesions allows the relationship between different brain regions to be specified  Weakness: will not lead us to full understanding of human brain function. Differences across species in terms of structure and function place strong limitations on our ability to generalize from one species to another and from animal models to humans Behavioral studies:  Healthy human subjects  Combines our knowledge of normal sensory systems with precise stimulus presentation and response recording  Cannot draw a specific link between behavior and underlying brain mechanisms The study of brain injuries:  Substitute for experiments that evidence for the localization of one or more functions  Relate the symptoms displayed by brain-injury patients to the parts of the brain that has been damaged 9 PSYC 213  Difficult to get definitive evidence concerning localization of function  Example: study by Broca o Loss of ability to express ideas by means of speech o Know what they want to say but are unable to do so  Broca’s aphasia  can‟t speak, but can understand  Autopsy showed severe damage to part of the left hemisphere  Broca’s area, responsible for how words are spoke  Another class of patients who are able to speak but unable to comprehend what is said to them: o Wernicke’s area o Wernicke’s aphasia Surgical intervention:  Sperry: o Received nobel prize for his work on interhemispheric transfer  Severing the optic chiasm in cats with the result that information coming from the right eye was projecting only to the visual areas of the right hemisphere, and vice versa o Also severed the corpus callosum  When severed, information transfer between the hemispheres is disrupted, can‟t communicate  The „split brain’ animal behaved as if he had two separate brains o Concluded that the left hemisphere managed analytic (verbal, rationale) tasks and the right hemisphere „holistic‟ (non-verbal, intuitive) tasks  Later on: o Argued that consciousness was an emergent property of the brain (“mind” comes about as a result of brain processes but is not itself a component of the brain; not reducible to or predictable from other features of the brain) o Once consciousness (“mind”) emerges from the brain, then it can have an influence on lower level functions (emergent causation) o The mind was seen as supervenient (mutual interaction between neural and mental states; mental states may influence neuronal events while being influenced by them) Imaging techniques: EEG: Electroencephalogram  Event-related potentials- Electrodes are attached to the scalp and the brain‟s activity is recorded after the presentation of a specific stimulus.  Bad spatial resolution 10 PSYC 213  Excellent temporal resolution Magnetoencephalography (MEG):  Brain’s electrical activity but picks up magnetic fields  Excellent temporal resolution –real time  Somewhat better spatial resolution  Expensive  Better picture than EEG PET: Positron Emission Tomography:  The person is injected with a radioactive dye. This dye tracks the flow of blood in the brain, i.e. areas of the brain which are activated require more blood, so they become “lit up” in the image.  Structural  Bad temporal resolution MRI & fMRI: (functional) Magnetic Resonance Imaging  This technique tracks the flow of oxygenated blood to various areas of the brain. Brain areas that are active during a certain task (fMRI) require more oxygen. *advantage over PET: the procedure doesn‟t require injection of a radioactive substance*  Structural and functional imaging  Excellent spatial resolution  Bad temporal resolution TMS: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  A specific area of the brain is stimulated using non-invasive electromagnetic current. Since you are stimulating a specific area of the cortex, you measure exactly what happens in that area when it is stimulated.  Helps depression  Know where certain part of the area is disrupted  Fine time scale Mutli-unit /Single-cell recordings  Microelectrodes are inserted into the brain, and activity of single or multiple neurons is recorded. Highly invasive. 11 PSYC 213  Five classes of methods: 1. Neuroanatomy (post-mortem)  Study of parts of the nervous system  Useful for looking at brain changes  gross neuroanatomy (general structures of the brain)  Divided in 4 lobes on each side (2 hemispheres)  Gives us a way of understanding how a nervous system is structured  Fine neuroanatomy  Individual neurons  Can look at connections 2. Neurophysiology (in-vivo- invasive)  Measuring and manipulating neuronal activity  Types of electrodes:  Recording (passive) and stimulating  macroelectrodes- region/population of cells; microelectrodes – single cell  Perrett: face cells in superior temporal Sulcus (STS)  right temporal lobe. Specialized area for processing of faces, within these areas different cells are specialized for different views 3. Lesion studies (animal participants usually) and neurology (patients with naturally occurring brain abnormalities)  How removal or alteration of a particular brain region affects behaviour/ cognition  Hum
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