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Midterm 1 textbook Review .docx

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McGill University
PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

Midterm Review I: Cognition Cara Neel Chapter 1  Cognitive psychology: the action/faculty of knowing. o Low level processing: sensory information, little to no analysis (e.g. Hot, cold, red, green). o High level processing: Making sense of information.  Dialectics o Thesis: A statement (ex. “Everything about humans is predetermined at birth.”) o Antithesis: An opposing statement (ex. “Everything about humans is a product of their environment.”) o Synthesis: The mediated view (ex. “Humans are affect both by predetermined factors at birth and as a result of their environments.”)  Rationalism o Major names: Plato, Descartes o “The truth about the world is within your head.”  Empiricism o Major names: Aristotle, Locke o “The truth about the worlds lies within the world.”  Structuralism o Major names: Wundt o Understanding behavior by understanding the structures of the brain  Functionalism o Understanding behavior by understanding mental processes.  Associationism o Major names: Ebbinghaus and Locke o Mental processes operate by the association of one state with a successor state.  Behaviorism o Major names: Watson and Skinner o All behavior arises as a result of reward and punishment (action/reaction). Behaviors that lead to a more pleasing state of affairs is more likely to occur than a behavior that leads to an annoying state of affairs.  Positive reinforcement: You do well on a test and you are given money for it.  Negative reinforcement: You have a headache, you take Advil, and your headache goes away. You take Advil whenever you have a headache as a result.  Positive punishment: You are speeding in the car and you are given a ticket.  Negative punishment: You were speeding, and so your parents take away your car keys o Issues with behaviorism:  Bandura’s studies of vicarious learning: there is no personal reward or punishment involved with observing the actions and consequences of something else, but you still learn  Gestalt principles: sometimes the whole is more than the sum of its parts, you can’t break it up into such simplistic actions/elements.  Noam Chomsky: language acquisition in children. How can they formulate sentences of their own if behaviorism is true?  Information Processing Models o Input  Mental transfer  Output o Perceptual cycle: Schema Exploration Object Modifies Schema o Broadbent’s Filter Model  All information goes into short-term memory, and then selected information is filtered into consciousness. Broadbent posited that attention has limited capacity and thus must filter out some of the information it is presented with.  The stimulus uncertainty rule: the more uncertain (novel) a stimulus is, the longer it’ll take to respond to it (thus, stimulus uncertainty correlates with an increase in reaction time.) Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience  Cognitive neuroscience is concerned with brain mechanisms that give rise to behavior. It is an interdisciplinary field (biology, psychology, neurochemistry, physics….)  Phrenology: Measuring the cranium to get insights on the structures of the brain. It’s proved irrelevant; it’s an “old-school” way of thinking. Franz Joseph Gall believed in it.  Karl Lashley o Law of mass action o Law of equipotentiality: although certain brain areas might have been specialized for specific functions, any part of the brain housed the ability to perform any action. o He saw the brain as a unified whole.  Interactionism o Major names: Descartes o Conciliates religion and sciences; states that while the mind and brain are different, they interact and affect one another via the pineal body.  Epiphenomenalism o The brain is the important structure; the mind is simply a superfluous byproduct of the brain. Steam engine analogy.  Parallelism o Mind/brain are two sides of the same coin; they don’t influence one another but instead work in parallel  Gestalt/Isomorphism o An experience and its corresponding brain function are the same thing.  Animal Models o Lesion methods (unethical in humans) o While there are certain differences across species, there are relative similarities in large and important structures, which makes animal research worthwhile.  Behavioral Studies o Almost always involves observing behavioral differences in healthy controls and patients with brain damage.  Broca’s aphasia: an inability to produce speech, due to an injury to Broca’s area  Wernicke’s aphasia: an inability to comprehend speech, due to an injury to Wernicke’s area.  Roger Sperry o Emergent property emergent causation supervenience emergent property  Imaging Techniques o Event Related Potential (ERP): Brain activity is measure via electrodes on the scalp, and the electrical activity of the brain is measured before and after exposure to a stimulus. o Positron Emission Tomography (PET): Injection of radioactive liquid into the carotid artery; shows metabolic activity in areas of the brain. o Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): tracks flow of oxygenated blood in the brain. o Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Interrupts/stimulates a specific brain area using magnetic stimulation. o Multi-unit/Single Neuron Measuring: Traces one or more individual neurons, extremely invasive.  Connectionist Models/Connectionism o Knowledge is links between neurons o Neural Networks  When you learn, you strengthen links  Hebb’s rule: Neurons that fire together wire together o Simultaneous firing: Parallel Distributed Processing o Serial Processing: one at a time Chapter 3: Perception  Recognition o Hoffding function: when an experience makes contact with a memory. o How?  Feature detection  Template matching o Feature detection theory; preattentive and bottom up.  Recognition by components (geons)  Perception requires recoverability  Perception is view independent o Template Matching  View dependent  Distinguishes between categories that have many common features  Templates are stored in memory, either as prototypes or specific instances.  Multiple Trace Memory Model  Primary Memoryprobesecondary memory  A prototype approach to template matching. Describes how an experience is matched to prototype and how the prototype is made.  Extraction of generalities (gists) o Impairment of Recognition  Visual agnosias  Apperceptive (cannot perceive object features)  Associative (cannot name or recognize object features)  Dissociates from optic ataxia  Prosopagnosia (face blindness)  Capgras’ Syndrome (Dissociation of emotion from facial stimuli, that leads you to believe your family and friends have been replaced by imposters).  Attention o Perception depends on attention  Feature integration  Change detection  Conscious perception requires attention o Context and knowledge  Moon illusions  Apparent distance theory  Angle of regard theory  Jumbled word  Word superiority  Empirical theory of color vision  McGurk Effect o Implications  Neurons are well connected and can affect one another  Cognitive systems are well connected  Perception interacts with attention and memory  Vision doesn’t have to be perfect!  Our brains fill in the missing information to give us the illusion that we are seeing the whole picture  Heursistics o Grand illusion of perception  Accounts for our visual and perceptual flaws. o Assumptions:  Light comes from above, objects are color constant, objects sit on top of one another (respect the rules of physics) and objects remain the same size. o Gestalt  Figure/ground segregation  Whole>Parts (Emergence and reification)  However, like most heuristics they don’t always work, especially because Gestalt principles only work in ceteris parabis. o Perception=complex  Ecological validity  Highly simplified stimuli (such as those in Gestalt psychology and the laboratory) don’t capture the complete picture.  Gibson’s theory of ecological optics (bottom up approach). Chapter 4: the Varieties of Attention  Attention is hard to definte o 3 metaphors  Spotlight (Posner)  200 m lens (Erikson)  Gradient (Laberge)  Space based models of attention  Selective attention o Select some information and ignore irrelevant stuff  Dichotic listening
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