midterm 2 review

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26 Apr 2012
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MIDTERM 2 REVIEW
7. IMAGERY
PAIVIO'S DUAL CODING THEORY
concrete: imagen and logogen
o more likely to remember concrete words
abstract: logogens only
DISTINCTIVENESS
von restoroff effect: different items are remembered better
method of loci: imagine distinctive relationship between an item and location
special places strategy: place item in a distinct location
o but since there's no relationship between item & location -> you will remember the
item but not the location where you put it
o ex. imagine your keys in the freezer; remember that your keys are somewhere weird,
but don't remember they are in the freezer
COGNITIVE DEDIFFERENTIATION
synthaesthesia: perceptual systems overlap
o cross-modal effects
eidetic imagery: perceptual and memory systems overlap
o icons
o vividness does not always equal accuracy (similar to memory ex. flashbulb
memories)
IMAGERY VS. PERCEPTION
imagery and perception share the same resources
o activity in visual sensory areas - feedforward & feedback
o but imagery and perception are dissociable
reversals of bistable images are less frequent in imagined images
SPATIAL IMAGERY
imagery helps us organize information
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mental models: analogues form of representation
o cognitive maps - objective/categorical distance, frame of reference, navigation and
the hippocampus
o emergent properties - ability to manipulate objects in your mind which are not
possible to do in reality
can help to solve problems
SPATIAL IMAGERY
imagery helps us manipulate information
mental rotation
spatial attention - males are generally better
7. IMAGERY PRACTICE QUESTIONS
Q. vividness is defined on which of the following dimensions?
a. richness and accuracy
b. clarity and brightness
c. liveliness and similarity to a percept
d. cross modal effects and memorability
e. prior knowledge and clarity
Q. "imagination is more important than knowledge, for knowledge is limited to all we now
know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will
be to know and understand"
which of the following does this quote describe?
a. cognitive dedifferentation
b. eidetic imagery
c. anticipations
d. emergent properties
e. analog form of representation
9. LANGUAGE
Q. what is language?
systematic means of communication by use of sounds or conventional symbols
social act to accomplish specific interpersonal goals
join activity (like a dance)
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very multi-disciplinary
LEVELS OF LANGUAGE
orthographic features: visual/written aspects of language
phonological features: sound/spoken aspects of language
words: what makes them distinct? (especially spoken)
o grammatical function, gender
prosodic contour: spoken melody of speech
compositional analysis = syntax + semantics
o parse the words (syntax)
o retrieve the meaning of each word (semantics)
o compositional analysis gives the literal meaning
what about the figurative meaning, or the social pragmatic context
TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR (CHOMSKY)
language: open ended, all possible sentences
speech: those sentences that are actually spoken
finite state grammar: set of rules used to generate sentences in each language
distinction between grammar and semantics
o sentences can be grammatically correct but meaningless
o ex. yellow meaningless mugs sprint prettily
kernel sentences: sentences that are produced without optional transformations
o ex. optional transformation of a sentence from the active to passive form
o early theorists thought that kernel sentences were easier to understand (not true)
competence: internalized system of rules
performance: determined by both competence and other cognitive factors (memory,
understanding the situation
deep structure: transforming a sequence of words into meaning
surface structure: sequence of words that make up a sentence
INNATENESS HYPOTHESIS
poverty of the stimulus: adult language is too full of errors and too incomplete, to give the
child insight into how to use the language effectively
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