Study Guides (238,613)
Canada (115,253)
Psychology (554)
PSYC 215 (47)

PSYC 215 Final Exam Review.pdf

20 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
PSYC 215
Michael Sullivan

PSYC 215 Final Exam Review Normal Triplett (1897): presence of another rider releases competition instinct and enhances performance Max Ringlemann (1800s): as group size increases, individual effort decreased Gordon Allport: attitudes are the most important concept in social psychology Kurt Lewin: behaviour is a function of the person and the situation Stanley Milgram: how much pain an ordinary citizen would inict on another person simply because he was ordered to - listened to authority more often than not Psychology is divided into two camps Behaviourism: explain psychology in terms of reward and punishment Opposed: talking about the mind, thoughts, emotions Preferred: experiments and the scientic method Freudian psychoanalysis: preferred elaborate interpretations of individual experiences instead of systematic studies that counted behaviours ABC triad: 3 building blocks of social psychology Affect - how people feel inside Behaviour - what people do Cognition - what people think about Types of psychology Psychology: study of human behaviour Biological psychology: study of what happens in the brain and nervous system Clinical psychology: abnormal behaviour Cognitive psychology: focus on thought processes, how memory works, and that people notice Developmental psychology: study of how people change across their lives, from conception to death Personality psychology: focusses on important differences between individuals as well as inner processes Social psychology: focusses on how human beings thinks, act and feel 5 steps of scientic method: (1) State a problem for study (2) Formulate a testable hypothesis as a tentative solution to the problem (3) Design a study to test hypothesis and collect data (4)Test the hypothesis by confronting It with the data (5)Communicate the study results Theories: composed on constructs (abstract ideas or concepts) that are linked together in some logical way Unobservable constructs: theoretical stimulus & theoretical response Observable constructs: independent variable and dependent variable Independent variable: variable manipulated by the researcher that is assumed to lead to changes in the dependent variable; it is a variable bc it has at least 2 levels, categories, types or groups Dependent variable: variable in a study that represents the result of the events and processes; depend on values of independent variable Operational denition: observable operations, procedures, and measurements that are based on the independent and dependent variables Construct validity of the cause: extent to which the independent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical stimulus Construct validity of the effect: extent to which the dependent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical response Research design: Experiment: a study in which 1) the researcher manipulates an independent variable and 2) the researcher randomly assigns people to groups 2 components: control and random assignment Random assignment: used to spread out the effect of other variables that cannot be controlled Quazi-experiment: a type of study in which the researcher can manipulate an independent variable but cannot use random assignment Most studies in social psychology are done on college students They dont differ fundamentally from other people When they do differ, it is usually a matter of degree rather than behaving according to different principles Psyche: a broader term for mind Nature explanations: people are born in a certain way; genes, hormones, brain structure Culture explanations: what people learn from their parents, society and their own experiences Theory of evolution: Charles Darwin Natural selection: members of a species that survive and produce most effectively are the ones that pass along their genes Survival: sh colour to hide from other sh - dark on top and light on bottom Reproduction: producing babies that survive long enough to also produce Being social improves survival and reproduction Cultural differences in being a man and woman Society regards womanhood as a biological achievement, whereas manhood requires a cultural achievement The need for men to prove themselves is relevant to many gender differences - threat to a mans masculinity caused him to feel aggressive and anxious, whereas parallel threats to a womans feminity produced no such response Duplex mind: the idea that the mind has 2 different processing systems Conscious: the part of the mind that performs complex operations Turns on when you wake up and turns off when you go to sleep Operated by reection - involves conscious deliberation about what would be the bet thing to do Automatic: part of the mind outside of consciousness that performs simple operations Handles all the endless mundane tasks such as interpreting, organizing and categorizing all the information that comes in through your eyes and ears Bigger than conscious system Continues to operate during sleep Operates by impulse - you feel something then do it CONSCIOUS AUTOMATIC Slow Fast Controllable Outside of conscious control Guided by intention Unintentional Good at combining information Poor at combining information Precise, rule-based calculations Estimates Can perform complex operations Simple tasks Does one thing at a time Can do many things at once Reasoning Intuition Effortful Effortless Depends on automatic system Can be independent of conscious processing Conscious override: when you feel like doing something but restrain yourself Nature says go, culture says stop Sex and aggression are natural but culture is full of rules that restrict this Sometimes culture says go, nature says stop Start eating because of ofcial policy and clock, stop eating because inner sensations signal youre full Selsh impulse vs. Social conscience Natural selection: best for self > best for society Culture: best for self < best for society Tradeoffs: reaping one benet requires either accepting a cost or sacricing another benet Choosing between something that has benets rights now vs. Later Detection vs. Resolution Animals: detection is emphasized over resolution which is crucial for survival Humans: more emphasis on resolution, which means perceiving things precisely Get information from each other in order to survive and reproduce People get most of what they need from others rather than the physical world around them People sometimes rely on others more than they do their own experiences The self: 3 main parts Self-knowledge: a set of beliefs about oneself Interpersonal self: the image of the self that is conveyed to others Agent self: the part of the self involved in control, including both control over other people and self-control Self as impulse: a persons inner thoughts and feelings Self as institution: the way a person acts in public, especially in ofcial roles Selves are different across cultures: independence vs. Interdependence Independent self-construal: a self-concept that emphasizes what makes the self different and sets it apart from others (more Westerners) Interdependent self-construal: a self-concept that emphasizes what connects the self to other people and groups (more Easterners) Without society, the self would not exist in full Self-awareness: attention directed at the self Private self-awareness: looking inward on the private aspects of the self, including emotions, thoughts, desires and traits Public self-awareness: looking outward on the public aspects of the self that others can see and evaluate When people are aware that they fall short of standards, they either change or escape Escape: alcoholism, drugs, suicide Self-regulation: the process people use to control and change their thoughts, feelings and behaviours Looking-glass self: the idea that people learn about themselves by imagining how they appear to others 3 components: 1) you imagine how you appear to others 2) You imagine how others will judge you 3) You develop an emotional response (pride, shame, etc) as a result of imagining how others will judge you Most research suggests that a persons self-concept is often different from what friends, family and coworkers think of them because: People dont always tell the truth People are not always receptive to feedback from others People are very selective in how they process i
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 215

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.