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PSYC 215 Study Guide - Final Guide: Time Preference, Clinical Psychology, Stanley Milgram

Course Code
PSYC 215
Michael Sullivan
Study Guide

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PSYC 215 Final Exam Review
Normal Triplett (1897): presence of another rider releases competition instinct and
enhances performance
Max Ringlemann (1800s): as group size increases, individual effort decreased
Gordon Allport: attitudes are the most important concept in social psychology
Kurt Lewin: behaviour is a function of the person and the situation
Stanley Milgram: how much pain an ordinary citizen would inflict on another person
simply because he was ordered to - listened to authority more often than not
Psychology is divided into two camps
Behaviourism: explain psychology in terms of reward and punishment
Opposed: talking about the mind, thoughts, emotions
Preferred: experiments and the scientific method
Freudian psychoanalysis: preferred elaborate interpretations of individual
experiences instead of systematic studies that counted behaviours
ABC triad: 3 building blocks of social psychology
Affect - how people feel inside
Behaviour - what people do
Cognition - what people think about
Types of psychology
Psychology: study of human behaviour
Biological psychology: study of what happens in the brain and nervous
Clinical psychology: “abnormal” behaviour
Cognitive psychology: focus on thought processes, how memory works, and
that people notice
Developmental psychology: study of how people change across their lives,
from conception to death
Personality psychology: focusses on important differences between
individuals as well as inner processes
Social psychology: focusses on how human beings thinks, act and feel
5 steps of scientific method:
(1) State a problem for study
(2) Formulate a testable hypothesis as a tentative solution to the problem
(3) Design a study to test hypothesis and collect data
(4)Test the hypothesis by confronting It with the data
(5)Communicate the study results
Theories: composed on constructs (abstract ideas or concepts) that are linked
together in some logical way
Unobservable constructs: theoretical stimulus & theoretical response
Observable constructs: independent variable and dependent variable
Independent variable: variable manipulated by the researcher that is assumed
to lead to changes in the dependent variable; it is a variable bc it has at least 2
levels, categories, types or groups
Dependent variable: variable in a study that represents the result of the events
and processes; depend on values of independent variable

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Operational definition: observable operations, procedures, and measurements that are
based on the independent and dependent variables
Construct validity of the cause: extent to which the independent variable is a valid
representation of the theoretical stimulus
Construct validity of the effect: extent to which the dependent variable is a valid
representation of the theoretical response
Research design:
Experiment: a study in which 1) the researcher manipulates an independent
variable and 2) the researcher randomly assigns people to groups
2 components: control and random assignment
Random assignment: used to spread out the effect of other variables that
cannot be controlled
Quazi-experiment: a type of study in which the researcher can manipulate an
independent variable but cannot use random assignment
Most studies in social psychology are done on college students
They don’t differ fundamentally from other people
When they do differ, it is usually a matter of degree rather than behaving
according to different principles
Psyche: a broader term for mind
Nature explanations: people are born in a certain way; genes, hormones, brain
Culture explanations: what people learn from their parents, society and their own
Theory of evolution: Charles Darwin
Natural selection: members of a species that survive and produce most effectively
are the ones that pass along their genes
Survival: fish colour to hide from other fish - dark on top and light on bottom
Reproduction: producing babies that survive long enough to also produce
Being social improves survival and reproduction
Cultural differences in being a man and woman
Society regards womanhood as a biological achievement, whereas manhood
requires a cultural achievement
The need for men to prove themselves is relevant to many gender differences -
threat to a man’s masculinity caused him to feel aggressive and anxious,
whereas parallel threats to a woman’s feminity produced no such response
Duplex mind: the idea that the mind has 2 different processing systems
Conscious: the part of the mind that performs complex operations
Turns on when you wake up and turns off when you go to sleep
Operated by reflection - involves conscious deliberation about what
would be the bet thing to do
Automatic: part of the mind outside of consciousness that performs simple
Handles all the endless mundane tasks such as interpreting, organizing
and categorizing all the information that comes in through your eyes and
Bigger than conscious system

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Continues to operate during sleep
Operates by impulse - you feel something then do it!
Outside of conscious control
Guided by intention
Good at combining information
Poor at combining information
Precise, rule-based calculations
Can perform complex operations
Simple tasks
Does one thing at a time
Can do many things at once
Depends on automatic system
Can be independent of conscious
Conscious override: when you feel like doing something but restrain yourself
Nature says go, culture says stop
Sex and aggression are natural but culture is full of rules that restrict this
Sometimes culture says go, nature says stop
Start eating because of official policy and clock, stop eating because
inner sensations signal you’re full
Selfish impulse vs. Social conscience
Natural selection: best for self > best for society
Culture: best for self < best for society
Tradeoffs: reaping one benefit requires either accepting a cost or sacrificing another
Choosing between something that has benefits rights now vs. Later
Detection vs. Resolution
Animals: detection is emphasized over resolution which is crucial for survival
Humans: more emphasis on resolution, which means perceiving things
Get information from each other in order to survive and reproduce
People get most of what they need from others rather than the physical
world around them
People sometimes rely on others more than they do their own
The self:
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