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Study Guide

[PSYC 215] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 77 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 215
Professor
Mark Baldwin
Study Guide
Final

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McGill
PSYC 215
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSYC 215 lecture 13 (2016/10/20)
Attachment and Close Relationships
The close relationship literature examines:
o Types and styles (compassionate, passionate) of relationships
o Attraction and relationship initiation
Some relationships you choose and others you were born into
o Self-disclosure and intimacy
Deepening the relationship, getting to know the other person, these are very important aspects
of our lives
o Satisfaction and commitment
Usually with respect to romantic relationships
Focused on mainstream processes (hetero vs homo and plural)
TA Emilie Auger will be giving a lecture on relationship commitment
o Relationship conflict and termination
What are the kinds of things that generate conflict between people and what leads to the
termination of a relationship?
Attachment Theory
Bol’s attahet theo, 1969
Evolution has wired humans to seek closeness and thereby, emotional security
We feel good, safe and satisfied when we have relationships with others (and live in groups with them)
Evolutionary theory and social cognition
We learn patterns of closeness
o Expectancies about whether others will be available and responsive
o We also learn about the things that we can do to have people be there for us (and conversely, we learn
about what types of things we do to make people recede from/reject us)
o Working models = our understanding of the world that is always open to change, always collecting more
info in an attempt to understand our social life
How best to achieve closeness and emotional security
Throughout our childhood, we have different experiences which shapes the patterns that we learn
We ae otiated fo loseess ut that does’t ea that e a just ahiee it, e eed to lea HOW to
achieve it (our actions and behaviours that help to achieve it)
Adult attachment theory
Do similar attachment principles apply to close adult relationships?
When we look at the way people behave with their loved ones, often it kind of looks similar to what we observe
in kids
There are many different theories on attachment, but the predominant one is composed of 3 categories:
o Secure these ppl find it relatively easy to be in relationships, count on others and have their needs met
o Avoidant ou do’t feel ofotale ith these tpes of poesses ad ou tede is to ithdraw
o Anxious (or anxious-ambivalent) ou’e ot sue hat to do ut ou feel aious aout it, ou at to
t to get lose to othes ut the ight pull aa ad ou o’t hae ou eeds et
Approximate percentages in most studies using the 3-category approach: secure (55%), avoidant (25%), anxious
(20%)
Is attachment style associated with aspects of close adult relationships?
Note that this theory built on the relationship and the way that children act with their parents
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The idea behind this theory is that you learn to be a certain way through your interactions with you family
members and you then brought that with you as an adult into your close personal relationships (this is still up
for debate bc not everyone behaves the same way in every kind of relationship that they have with others)
Simpson et al, 1992
How does attachment style relate to reactions to stress?
Method:
o Dating couples - subjects
o Attachment styles measured in each ppt
o Woa told she ould e takig pat i a stessful atiit
The did’t tell he hat it as
“aid thee o’t e a peaet tissue daage
o Couple videotaped while they waited for 5 minutes
The researchers wanted to see how the couple interacted
They were unaware that they were being videotaped
Does the peso’s attachment style predict how they deal with stress?
Results:
o For secure women, the more scared they looked, the more comfort they sought
o For avoidant women, the more scared they looked, the less comfort they sought (the less they reached
out to their partners and the more they withdrew)
o For anxious women, the results were unclear
Correlates of secure pattern
- Highly invested in relationships, tend to have long and trusting ones
- Grieves following loss but achieves resolution
- Enjoys sex but usually in the context of a LT relationship
- Feels well liked by coworkers
- Describes parents in favourable though not unrealistic terms
- Is supportive of partner when they are under stress
- Self-discloses appropriately and likes others to self-disclose
- Seeks integrative, mutually satisfactory resolutions of conflicts
- Regulates anger effectively, tends to forget negative interactions or reinterpret them constructively
- Likel to adopt paets’ eligio ad ie God as a good paet
Correlates of avoidant pattern
- Less invested in relationships, expresses less grief following loss
- Imagines someone other than actual partner during sex
- Has more one night sexual encounters
- Prefers to work alone, work is the excuse to avoid close relationships
- Describes parents as rejecting and cold
- More likely to have been abused or a parent with an alcohol problem
- Withdraws support from partner when partner or self is stressed
- Feels bored and distant during social interactions
- Does’t like to self-dislose ad does’t appoe of othes that do so
Correlates of anxious pattern
- Invested in relationships yet high break up rate
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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