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Lecture notes Psych 215 all lectures.docx

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PSYC 215
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Week 1 construal jan 810We tend to resolve our perplexity arising out of the experience that other people see the world differently than we see it ourselves by declaring that those others in consequence of some basic intellectual and moral defect are unable to see things as they really are and to react to them in a normal way We thus imply of course that things are in fact as we see them and that our ways are normal ways Ichhesier 1949Construal the actors subjective understanding or definition of his or her situationEx Some drivers are too slow and some are too fast comedianConstrual They saw a game Princeton vs Dartmouth 19512002 Olympics media bias Barack Obama Weapons biasConstrual of distance from threat could that be different from a subjective stateYankee fans and a control group the researcher wanted to know the distance between Yankee stadium and Fenway stadium What they found was that there was a bias in which Yankee fans thought that their enemy was closer ie Boston NYU students perceptions of Columbia University Researchers presented Columbia students as stronger schools than NYU they found that if they were put in a threat situation then you see them as closer than they really are Americans threatened by immigrationdistance to Mexico City Americans in this study saw immigrants as a threat to American culture which has to do with identity Americans were threatened by distance to Mexico City and control had another city Vancouver and they didnt see the same threat They had a distorted vision in the US to Mexico City How much does this look like Barack Obama 0not at all 10 a great deal Is skin color in the eye of the beholderThey did a study about skin color showed people 3 pictures of Obama 1 is real and was told to choose which one was the real one Some pictures were lightened and others were darkened McCain supporters chose the darker ones which were the conservative 89 and Obama supporters chose the lighter one We get the same effect when unknown African American candidate who shares vs Does not share your ideology In other words not specific to liberals vs ConservativeWhen the candidate is more like you you tend to choose the lighter colorShooter biasIs it a tool or a weaponVideo showed that whites have difficulty when presented with blacks error rate are higher and if you hold stereotypes you will be more prone to shoot more One effect is racial White Americans can also have a sense of Danger from everyone if they think the world is a Dangerous placeWeapons effect states the more there is a presence or visual representation of a weapon may lead to an increased probability of aggressive behaviors Construal the actors subjective understanding or definition of his or her situationLast class ballots second set of candidates are selecting a different one based on error construal Canadian styleSkating video Olympics 2002The first ex of construal was 60 years ago After the skating performance they looked at how Russian media outlets showed this Russians always won this but theres was a lot of anticipation as sale and Pelletier were very good 2002 Olympics media biasContextRussians won pairs figure skating since 1964Sale and Pelletier first serious competition in long timeRussians technical mistakes but novel and difficult programCanadians flawless less artistic easier old programThey saw a triple lutzStepanova strubehetts 2009judges are pressuredN American public decided to alter the outcomeCanadians got gold by whining againmedia accounts vary by countryRussians 50 more likely to say competition was close twice as likely proRussian Americans almost twice as likely to make proCanadian argumentsbtw French judge said she made a deal with the Russians Theres only so much give for subjective construal Russian media counts then shifted The thing about construal it taps in to naive realism that there is subjectivity but thanks to our knowledge of that we are immune to that
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