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PSYC 305
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Basic Statistics1Basic ConceptsaPopulation The entire sets of things of interest population parameterbSample The part of the population Typically this provide the data we will look at property of the samplecDescriptive Statisticsvs Inferential StatisticsiDescriptive StatisticsSummarize describe the properties of samples or population when all the data are knowniiInferential Statistics Draw conclusions about the properties of the population from the sample data ie population assumptions based on the sampledVariable1Something that varies2A Condition or characteristics that can have different values3Can be constantiiDependent Variable Y predicted variableiiiIndependent Variable X factors in experimental designIn this course we will focus on the relationships between one dependent variable and onemultiple independent variableseTypes of VariablesiCategorical DiscreteQualitative1Nominal ClassifyIdentify Categories or levels2Ordinal Ranking Data distance are not equal Stage order of magnitude etciiNumerical Continuous Quantitative1Interval Rating Data equal distances but there is no absolute zero2Ratio Special kind of interval scale with a meaningful zerofSummary of the Measures Central VariationShapeTendencyMeanModeMedianStandard SkewnessVarianceDeviationiCentral Tendency1Mean the average of all the datathe sum of all the values divided by the sample size IMPORTANTThe mean is affected by extreme values2MedianThe exact middle value aFor Odd number of values Find the middle valuebFor even number of values Find the middle two values and find the average of them The Median is not affected by extreme values3Mode The value that appears the most frequently aThe mode is not affected by extreme valuesbUsed for numerical and CategoricaldatacThere may be no mode or several modesiiMeasures of Variations1The Range Difference the largest and the smallest value2Variance Average approximately of the squared deviations of the values from the mean N sample sizeXXi2ni12SThe Mean is generally used unless extremes values exist The Median is often used since the median is not sensitive to extreme values
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