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Post-midterm readings.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

Chapter 6 When people use trait terms in everyday talk, An implicit assumption that certain features of they seem to be operating from what psychological individuality are more-or-less stable “for a while” What is wrong with a trait scale Gives wildly different scores for a given individual from one day or week to the next is thought to lack test-retest reliability What is absolute continuity Constancy in the quantity or amount of an attribute over time; Never applied to the single individual, group averages on a given trait What is differential continuity Consistency of individual differences within a sample of individuals over time, to the retention of an individual’s relative placement in a group; Matter of individuals’ relative standing to one another on a given dimension When are there high levels of continuity? A person needs to continue to score at their score at time 1 and other people also have to be scoring about the same High correlation coefficients between time 1 High differential continuity and time 2 suggest what What does low correlation coefficients Low differential continuity meaning that between time 1 and time 2 suggest what people’s relative positions on the given dimension change unpredictably over time Absolute continuity vs differential continuity Absolute continuity: consistency of the avg score on a given trait over time Differential continuity: stability of individual differences in scores Longitudinal studies show what about High differential continuity in personality traits personality traits over adult lifespans What did Conley (1985a) find from his 50 yr Fofr all newlyweds, interrater reliability was longitudinal study of several hundreds of supported where spouse ratings tended to adults? agree with self-ratings on many personality traits One possible reason for stability Error of measures Factors that affect differential continuity Length of time interval btwn testing Age of participant The longer the time interval, the _____ the Lower differential continuity Schuerger et al (1989)’s review of 89 Found that test-retest correlations on traits longitudinal studies of personality traits and tended to decline as the time interval test-retest correlations? increased Extraversion vs Neuroticism on differential Extraversion tends tos how slightly higher continuity differential continuity than the trait of Neuroticism and higher continuity than the overall average of other traits as well Roberts and DelVecchio (2000)’s study on Expect greater and greater differential longitudinal consistency of personality traits continuity in personality traits as people age between adults and children? up through late midlife Study by Roberts and DelVecchio (2000) on Trait ratings in children show less differential the issue of personality traits in children? continuity than do trait ratings in adulthood According to Gordon Allport (1961) what are Characteristic phenomena of an individual’s temperaments nature, including his susceptibility to emotional stimulation, his customary strength and speed of response, the quality of his prevailing mood, and all peculiarities of fluctuation and intensity of mood Temperament dimensions represent what Early in life framework out of which personality traits eventually emerge Three different types of temperament patterns Easy babies Consistently positive mood, low to moderate intensity of emotional reactions, and regular sleeping and eating cycles Difficult babies Consistently show negative moods, intense emotional reactions and irregular sleeping and eating cycles Slow to warm up babies Combination of previous two forms, with relatively negative moods, low intensity of emotional reactions and the tendency to withdraw from new events at first but then approach them later What is behavioral inhibition Extremely inhibited young children show great timidity in the face of new events and people Inhibited vs uninhibited children Inhibited: shy and emotional subdued in unfamiliar situations Uninhibited: consistently sociable and affectively spontaneous Physiological symptoms of inhibited children? More dilated pupils, higher heart rates, higher levels of morning cortisol in blood (heightened arousal) Neural activation in inhibited vs uninhibited Inhibited  right frontal lobe children Uninhibited  left frontal lobe Right frontal lobe is associated with Negative affectivity and BIS Left frontal lobe is associated with Positive affectivity and BAS Effortful control Child’s active and voluntary capacity to withhold a dominant response in order to enact a subordinate response given situational demands Children with strong capacity for effortful Delay immediate gratification control are able to do what High levels of effortful control are predictive of successful interpersonal functioning in childhood, better school grades, and fewer behavioral problems Effortful control is an important factor in Moral development and the consolidation of conscience Effortful control in children from low SES and Children from more economically deprived high SES families tend to show lower levels of effortful control than do children from more affluent families 5 different temperament types Well adjusted show appropriate levels of self-control when demanded Undercontrolled Impulsive, restless, negativistic, and distractible, showed strong and volatile emotional reactions Confident Adjusted to testing situation quickly and showed friendliness, impulsivity, and enthusiasm Inhibited Socially reticent, fearful, and easily upset by examiner Reserved Timid and somewhat uncomfortable but showed less shyness and caution than inhibited children At age 26, which children were the most Undercontrolled and inhibited predictable? Who had the highest score on negative Undercontrolled emotionality Which traits do uncontrolled children show High levels of neuroticism Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness Inhibited children grow up showing Overcontrolled and nonassertive personality style Developmental elaboration Complex interplay through which inborn tendencies shape and are shaped by environmental inputs over a long period of time 6 mechanisms of developmental elaboration Learning process How children learn Environmental elicitation How they construe their environments Environmental construal How other ppl in the environment respond to them Social and temporal comparisons How they compare selves to other children Environmental selection What kinds of environments they choose Environmental manipulation How they manipulate environments once they choose it MZ vs DZ MZ: similar DZ: no more similar to each other than any other set of biological siblings Personality traits are products of Both genes and environment What person of height is associated with 90% genes genes and with environment 10% environment How do you calculate the heritability? h = 2(r mz dz Nonadditive genetic variance Genes may not influence traits in a linear, additive way, but rather combine and interact in a “configural” pattern in which all components are essential Emergenesis An emergent property of a configuration of genes or perhaps a configuration of more basic traits that are themselves genetic in origin Behavioral tendencies are referred to as Emergent properties What did twin studies and adoption studies Has little impact on personality traits show about growing up in the same family 6 categories of nonshared family effects Perinatal trauma Injuries sustained by fetus before birth Accidental events Chance happenings and lucky breaks Family constellation Birth order, birth spacing Sibling mutual interaction Children in a family interact with one another in complex ways Unequal parental treatment Mom likes you more Influences outside of family Different friends and teachers Influence of genes and environment on each Environment: may influence brain other development and functioning but genes stay the same Genes: alter and shape how ppl experience their environments Evocative influence People respond to child according to genotype Passive influence Child’s biological parents provide an environment with child that is compatible with their own genotypes which are similar to the child’s genotype Active influence Direct selection of and search for environment that fit ones genotype Belsky, Boyce, and others describe two Dandelions: grow under all kinds of different kinds of children: dandelions and environmental conditions orchids Orchids: require expert care and are sensitive to environments Stress reactivity Tendency to show a wide range of strong physiological responses, such as greater amygdala activation and secretion of cortisol Child with low reactivity Less strongly affected by environmental and more likely to develop personality traits that are close accord with their own genetic predispositions Allport’s 5 criterias for maturity 1. Emotional security and regulation of behavior 2. Capacity for investing self in significant life projects 3. Capacity for compassionate and intimate rlnsps 4. Realistic appraisal of self and others 5. Establishment of personally derived philosophy of life Cohort effect Finding in psychological research whose cause lies within the particular historical cohort being studied Mroczek and Spiro foud that high avg levels of Higher levels of mortality in order men neuroticism predicted Ego control Extent to which a person typically modifies expression of impulses Ego resiliency Capacity to modify one’s typical level of ego control to adapt to demands of a given situation Chapter 7 Four basic propositions of psychoanalysis Determinism, drive, conflict, and unconscious 2 sets of instincts Life instincts Eros  sexuality and all other Death instincts Thanatos  aggression and all other th Hysteria Common 19 century psychological disorder where patients suffered from bizarre bodily symptoms Victorian men and women were preoccupied Involuntary revelation of the inner self to with others Topographical model Conscious region What a person is currently aware of Preconscious region Person is not currently aware but could readily enter awareness if person decides Unconscious region Cannot be readily retrieved and is actively repressed Ap Dijksterhuis (2004) provides students with Ps in second group relied on unconscious large amt of info on different apartments in city thinking, which must have occurred during and asked them to decide on one the3 mins they were distracted; unconscious thought is better able than consciousness to process large amt of info in an efficient and effective manner Repression Function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness Repressors Person who experience little anxiety on conscious level and adopts highly defensive approach in life Repressors vs low anxious people? Repressors have lower subjective distress but had significantly higher levels of physiological levels Davis (1987)’s study on repressors and Recalled fewer childhood experiences when memories they felt happy, sad, angry, etc. BUT recalled more memories of other people feeling those emotions Resilience Ability to overcome difficult obstacles in life and to thrive amidst adversity What happened in Bonanno et al’s study with Repressors felt relatively little conscious bereaved spouses and parents to talk about distress in the convo but high physiological their loss arousal What happened at the 18 month followup? Repressors showed better physical health and psychological adjustment than nonrepressors Realistic anxiety Reality threatents ego Neurotic anxiety Id threatens ego Moral anxiety Superego threatens ego 3 defensive mechanisms Denial: denies negative event occured Projection: attributes negative feelings to others Identification: enduring mental rep of significant others From the humanistic perspective, the Striving to actualize and perfect the self sumpreme motivator is Fully functioning person Person who is able to fulfill her potential Fully functioning person operates according to Organismic value process  those experiences in accord with basic organismic actualizing tendency Unconditional positive regard All people experienceneed for positive regard and desire to be loved and accepted Conditions of worth Conditions to which we are loved and accepted Maslow’s theory of self-actualization 3 levels: physiological, safety, belongingness and low Higher needs cannot be addressed until the lower needs are satisfied Peak experiences Wonderful moments of happiness, ecstasy, transcendence Cognition (B-cognition) People perceive world as a whole, detached from relations from possible usefulness Deci’s experience on puzzles and rewards Those promised payment spent significantly during free choice periods less time playing during free choice period; reported enjoyed task less and found it less interesting Extrinsic rewards have what effect on intrinsic Decrease intrinsic motivation motivation What kind of rewards are the best? Rewards for effort Deci and Ryan’s 3 basic psychological needs Competence, autonomy, relatedness 2 facets of organismic integration Unity of self and integration into social order According to Kasser and Ryan, what is the American’s obsession with material wealth dark side of the Americna dream? may undermine pursuit of intrinsic goals that promote organismic integration According to Murray’s theory, what are press Press are various situational constraints and opportunities for need expression According to Murray’s theory, what is a thema What a particular need repeatedly interacts with a particular press an extended period of time How many needs did Murrary propose? 20 What is a subsidiary need One that operates in service of another Alpha press vs beta press Alpha: made up of characteristics of environment as they exist in reality or as objective inquiry discloses them Beta: person’s subjective impression of those characteristics in environment; always a matter of interpretation What is group think Form of hasty decision making characterized by diffusion of responsibility, failure to consider long-term ramifications, and domination by a single strong leader whose opinion generally goes unchallenged High in power men vs women in marriages Women: positive associated with marital satisfaction Men: higher divorce rate and greater degree of marital dissatisfaction Men high in power express more _____ than Feminine evil men low in power When men high in power are asked to draw Frightening, bizarre, and exaggerated sexual pictures of women, how do they look characteristics Communal friendship vs agentic friendship Communal: being together and sharing secrets Agentic: doing things and helping others Respondent measure vs operant measure Respondent: subject limited to what kind of responses Operant: subject creates own responses Self attributed motives vs implicit motives Self attributed: conscious, cognitively elaborated image of self as oriented toward particular goal states respondent Implicit: nonconscious desires for particular goal states Operant Motivational concepts vs motives Former: in time latter: in future 5 dimensions of personal projects Meaningfulness, manageability, support, efficacy, stress Chapter 8 What kind of view does the self determination - Rational and effective theory have on humans? (4) - Intelligent and planful in social interactions - Behavior is responsive to situational demands but also coherent and self- organized What is the key to understanding personality Social intelligence (each person brings a set of coherence? skills, abilities, and knowledge to every social situation 3 kinds of organized knowledge in social intelligence Concepts Abstract and categorical things contained in the storehouse (e.g. who you are and what you typically expect to happen in social life) Aspects of declarative semantic knowledge Episodes More concrete and particular kinds of things contained the storehouse (memories of particular scenes in your life) Aspects of declarative episodic knowledge Rules Contrast to concepts and episodes, they are not things but rather procedures and processes Aspects of procedural knowledge What are relational schemas? Mental representations of especially important interpersonal rlnsps that a person has experienced Entity theory vs incremental theory Entity: attributes are fixed entities that do not change over time Incremental: attributes are malleable and can change incrementally over time Entity based vs incrementalist in failures Entity: feel helpless Incremental: work hard and master Lay theories Implicit assumptions rading the extent to which human attributes of many different kinds are either fixed or malleable Shy incrementalist vs shy entity theorist Shy incremental: engage in relatively challenging social interactions that might help them develop Entity: do not challenge their skills and take easy way out Perceiving others, entity vs incrementalist Entity: pays attn to info in environment that (Beer 2002) confirms their stereotypes Incremental: pay attn to info that could potentially disconfirm their initial biases Causal attributions How people understand the causes of events Schema Cognitive structure that represents one’s general knowledge about a given concept or concept domain; filters/templates A person’s schema go beyond the info given a) Simplifying info when there is too much by (2) to handle efficiently b) Filling gaps when info is missing Self-schemas are generally (4) 1) Larger and more complex than other schemas 2) Richer in network of associations and rlnsps among components 3) More frequently activated in daily info processing 4) Loaded with emotions Hazel Markus’ (1997) study on dimensions of Dependent schematics had faster RT to independence—dependence in self schemas dependent adjectives and independent had faster RT to independent activities Achematics: did not differ in processing time for depen/indepen. Activities People with self-scemas emphasizing a) Evaluate new info with respect to particular areas are readily able to (5) relevance b) Make judgments and decisions with ease c) Retrieve episodes and other behavioral evidence from past d) Predict future behavior e) Resist info that counters it 2 functions of possible selves - Crucial link btwn motivation and cognition in self-understanding - Self-evaluation – provide frameworks by w
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