PSYC 332 Final: PSYC 332 - All Lecture Notes for the Final

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7 Jul 2015
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PSYC 332 Introduction to Personality
Lecture: The Big Five Traits
Film Clip from 2014 Olympic Coverage of Kaetlyn Osmond
Kaitlyn on the Big Five Traits:
O: Average
C: High
E: High
A: Less than average
N: Low
Random Traits:
The Lexical and Factor Analytic Process
18,000 words that describe personality
o5,000 describe stable personality traits
- But words have a lot of synonyms, so you can narrow it down
to 180.
- Then use factor analysis to find underlying dimensions across a
variety of ratings, then found five basic dimensions of
personality.
Formal Definition of Traits
Traits: Dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent
patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
The Big Five Trait Taxonomy
1) Openness to Experience: Tendency to be receptive to new ideas, approaches and
experiences.
Associated with higher IQ and education
Interest in culture
2) Conscientiousness: Tendency toward organization, persistence and motivation in
goal-direct behavior.
3) Extroversion: Tendency to be outgoing, sociable, and assertive.
4) Agreeableness: Tendency to have concern for others, to have warm and trusting
sentiments.
Being a human (caring, empathetic)
Psychopaths and narcissists lack this trait
5) Neuroticism: Tendency to experience negative emotions.
First thing you notice about a person along with extroversion
Opposite would be stable
Examples from Peanuts:
Charlie Brown: Neuroticism
Linus: Agreeableness
Lucy: Extroversion (quarrelsome)
Snoopy
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2
PSYC 332 Introduction to Personality
The Seinfeld Characters
They are all low on agreeableness
George is high on Neuroticism
All very Extroverted
Lecture 3: Getting Comfortable With the Big Five Traits
Caveats
Natural to begin by trying to pin down our profile
There is more nuance to the Big Five than I have described.
Danger of labeling (stigmatize other people)
There is more to personality than the Big Five
Three levels to personality, Big 5 is only the first level
Our Big 5 profile isn’t what is most unique (or important) about us
You can use the Big 5 on strangers, levels 2 and 3 are more individualized
Film Clip From The Office
How would you describe Pam’s personality?
O: Moderate
C: Moderate High
E: Low
A: High (off the scale)
N: Low
Features of the Big Five
Apply to all people
Bipolar (Introversion/Extroversion, Agreeable/Quarrelsome)
Comparative (normal distribution)
Nonconditional, decontextualized
Are the Big Five Useful?
Is it measuring something real?
Universal?
oApplicable in other cultures
oCultural differences
- Northern Europe, Spain, higher in extroversion
- India, Africa, East Asia low extroversion
Evolutionarily important
oImportant to groups in that they capture the key things you would
want to know about another person
-Conscientiousness: Reliable
-Agreeableness: trust
-Openness: teach/learn
-Neuroticism: maintenance (low or high)
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PSYC 332 Introduction to Personality
-Extroversion: dominance (control)
Can it be applied to children and teens?
Yes
Looking for Big 5 in Chimps: Freeman et al 2013, Am. J of Primatology
99 animals rated by 17 raters
Came up with six dimensions to explain the different behaviors (Match the
big five traits)
oFirst dimension was called reactivity and undependability
(imitable, temperamental, defiant, mischievous). A little like
neuroticism.
Different chimps have different personalities, not all the same
Which big 5 trait separated in two?
Extroversion
oDominance
oSociable
Does it Predict Specific Behaviors?
Yes, and accurately
Is There Agreement Among Different Raters?
Good correspondence
Do People Show Consistency On These Dimensions?
Across situations and contexts?
Fairly high level of consistency
Over time?
Far more consistent over our lifetime than we would guess
How do the Big 5 Traits Relate to Each Other?
If you know someones level of E can you predict their N, O, A or C?
No, each trait is independent and orthogonal of others
Social desirability issue
- Some traits are more wanted, looked highly upon than others
(extroversion seen as good, neurotic seen as bad).
- Assume those go together, but they don’t (i.e. extroversion
doesn’t mean you’re agreeable)
Shyness extrapolation problem
Adaptive Value of Neuroticisms and Quarrelsomeness?
The Croods: Motto of the father is never be not afraid. Where they live its
important to be anxious and careful. So neuroticism is a good thing/adaptive.
Adaptive value for neuroticism.
House: Quarrelsomness, like the character even though he’s not a nice person.
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